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Phytonyms (Names of Trees)

(1,522 words)

Author(s): Václav Blažek
Abstract Ancient Greek attests a number of tree-names (dendronyms and phytonyms) whose origins are diverse: some were inherited from PIE, others constructed within Greek itself, taken from the substrate language(s), or borrowed from neighboring languages; the origins of some remain obscure. Ancient Greek attests a number of tree-names ( dendronyms and phytonyms) whose origins are diverse: some were inherited from PIE (Indo-European Historical Background), others constructed within Greek itself (Greek Lexicon, Structure and Origin of), taken from…
Date: 2014-01-22

Numerals

(2,806 words)

Author(s): Václav Blažek
Abstract In this article the Greek numerals are analyzed from the point of view of their dialect forms in both alphabetic and syllabic scripts, internal structure and external cognates within Indo-European. The existence of more or less exact counterparts from other Indo-European branches indicates that the numerals 1-10, 12, 20-50, 100 and 1000 are inherited, although some specific features make the numerals 9, 20 and 100 unique, while others, usually compounds or ordinals, represent Greek innovations. The Greek numerals 1-10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 1000, continue in their Indo-Europ…
Date: 2013-11-01

Theonyms (Names of Gods)

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Václav Blažek
Abstract Greek theonyms (: divine names) may be classified according to their origin into the following categories: names of Indo-European heritage, names which constitute innovations of Greek, names that were borrowed into Greek and underwent reinterpretation, and names which are direct borrowings from other languages. Greek theonyms (i.e., divine names) may be classified according to their origin into the following four categories: names of Indo-European heritage, names which constitute innovations of Greek, names that were borrowed into …
Date: 2013-11-01

Etymology

(2,322 words)

Author(s): Václav Blažek
Etymology is a linguistic discipline dating from Ancient Greece. Plato, for instance, devoted his dialogue Kratylos to the explanation of various Greek words. The word etumología ‘the analysis of a word so as to find its origin’ was first used at the end of the 1st century B.C.E. by Strabo (784) and Dionysius Halicarnassensis ( De compositione verborum 16); the verb étumologeō ‘I analyze a word and find its origin’ is used only by Athenaeus (35C), living in the 2nd/3rd century C.E. The compound consists of the base log- known from the names of various scientific disciplines ( lógos ‘word, pr…
Date: 2018-04-01

Slavonic Languages

(6,076 words)

Author(s): Václav Blažek
1. Introduction The number of words of Arabic origin (or words borrowed from other sources via Arabic) in the Slavonic languages differs from one language to another. There are, for instance, more than fifty Arabic loanwords in Czech (Machek 1968; Rejzek 2001), approximately seventy in Russian (Vasmer 1950–1958), almost three hundred in Macedonian (Jašar-Nasteva 2001), and more than four hundred in Bulgarian (BER 1962ff.) and Serbo-Croatian (Skok 1971–1974). Although direct contacts between Slavs and Arabs are documented as early as the 7th century C.E. ( Theophanes, Chronographi…
Date: 2018-04-01

Zoonyms (Names of Mammals)

(979 words)

Author(s): Václav Blažek
Abstract Greek zoonyms can be classified according to both zoological key terms and origin: thus they reflect Indo-European heritage, internal formation, cultural loans (Semitic/Egyptian/Berber), unknown (substratal?) origin. Mycenaean parallels ought to be quoted too, including derivatives and proper names. In the rich Greek zoological terminology two general terms are used: zôion ‘living being, animal’, from the verb zṓō ‘to live’ ( *g u̯i̯eh₃-), and thḗr ( Il.), Aeol. phḗr ‘wild animal’ ( *ĝʰ u̯eh₁r-), perhaps attested in Myc. qe-ra-jo /Kʰwēraios/, possibly connected w…
Date: 2013-11-01