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(1,030 words)

Author(s): Valk, Jakob M. M. de
1. Term The word “manipulation” derives from Lat. manus (hand) and plero (fill). Semantically, it is akin to handling, but with the negative connotation of illegitimate or doubtful modes of handling. Though it may be used with reference to nature, it refers primarily to acts relating to people, whether physical, psychological, or social. One might define it as a deliberate influencing of individuals and groups that are not aware of being influenced or given any option in the matter. It thus differs from authority (consciously experienced and legally recognized influencing) and compul…