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Rutuli

(531 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
[German version] Tribe of southern Latium in the region of Ardea (Str. 5,3,2-5: Ῥούτουλοι/ Rhoútouloi; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,43,2; 57,2; 59,2: Ῥοτόλοι/ Rhotóloi; Ael. NA 11,16: Ῥουτουλοί/ Rhoutouloí; Sil. Pun. 8,359: R.) where the Fosso Molo and the Fosso Acquabona flow into the Fosso Incastro, which in turn flows into the sea at Castrum [1] Inui. Its legendary King Turnus, like Aeneas [1], sought the hand of Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, and fell in single combat (Cato Orig. fragments 9-11; Verg. Aen. 7-12 passim; Liv. …

Samnites, Samnium

(1,710 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
[German version] I. Name, ethnos, geography The S. called their country Safinim, and themselves probably Safineis (inscriptions: Vetter 149; coins: [1. 149 f.]); the Greeks, respectively, Saunîtis (Σαυνῖτις, Pol. 3,90,7) and Saunîtai (Σαυνῖται, Philistus FGrH 556 F 41 f.; according to Fest. 436 L, derived from saúnion, 'spear'); the Romans called them S. (ILS 1). While etymologically related, these terms do not have the same geographical meaning. Common to Safineis and the ethnics Sabini and Sabelli is the Indo-European root * Sabh (cf. the god Sabus, Cato HRR fr. 50 f.).…

Sabini

(1,539 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
(Σαβῖνοι/ Sabînoi). [German version] I. Origin Central Italian people of the Oscan-Umbrian language branch. Most ancient authors derived the name S. from a divine ancestor, Sabus/Sabinus ( Safinús in a South Picenian inscription, probably 5th cent. BC; Cato fr. 50; Gellius HRR fr. 10; Hyginus HRR fr. 9; Sil. Pun. 8,420-423). According to Varro ( apud Fest. 464; cf. Plin. HN. 3,108), S. was derived from σέβεσθαι/ sébesthai, ‘to worship’, because of their alleged piety. The current prevailing opinion is that S. is derived from the stem of the reflexive pronoun * se expanded by bh to * s-bh (> * S…

Volturnum

(327 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
(Οὐουλτοῦρνος/ Ououltoûrnos). [German version] [1] Township in the north of Campania This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Tribus | Coloniae Township on the Mare Tyrrhenum at the mouth of the Volturnus [1] in the north of Campania (Str. 5,3,10; 5,4,4; Varro, Ling. 5,29; Plin. HN. 3,61; Mela 2,70), modern Castel Volturno. It was converted into a fort by the Romans in a battle with Hannibal [4] in 212 BC (Liv. 25,20,2). A colonia proposed in Rome in 197 (Liv. 32,29,3) was settled at V. in 194 BC (Liv. 34,45,1). V. was the seat of a praefectura (Fest. 242,10; prae…

Voltur

(142 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
[German version] Mountain of volcanic origin to the right of the Aufidus in southern Samnium, modern Monte Volture with the peaks of Monte Pizzuto (1327 m) and Monte Monticchio (1262 m), on the western slopes of which there are two small crater lakes. Although it is situated in southern Samnium (Samnites), it is located by Hor. Carm. 3,4,9 and Luc. 9,185 ( Vultur) in Apulia (Apuli), where they claim it can be seen from a great distance. The name of the mountain has been connected with the Etruscan root in Volturnus (wind and river), Veturia (island in the Mare Tyrrhenum), Volturcia ( Gens

Tibur

(592 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Tribus | Latini, Latium | Oracles (Τιβούρ/ Tiboúr, Τίβουρα/ Tíboura). City in Latium (Ptol. 3,1,58; Pol. 6,14,8; App. B Civ. 1,65), modern Tivoli, about 27 km to the east-northeast of Rome at the confluence of the Anio and the Empiglione; station on the via Valeria (Str. 5,3,11). Foundation legends are numerous, syntheses of local traditions and Hellenistic influences. One line of tradition traces the origin of the founder Catillus to Arcadia (Cato Ori…

Sabini

(1,441 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
(Σαβῖνοι). [English version] I. Herkunft Zentral-it. Volk des oskisch-umbrischen Sprachzweigs. Die meisten ant. Autoren leiten S. von einem göttlichen Ahnherrn Sabus/ Sabinus ab ( Safinús in südpicenischen Inschr., wohl 5. Jh. v. Chr.; Cato fr. 50; Gellius HRR fr. 10; Hyginus HRR fr. 9; Sil. 8,420-423); nach Varro (bei Fest. 464; vgl. Plin. nat. 3,108) leitet sich S. von σέβεσθαι/ sébesthai, “verehren”, wegen ihrer angeblichen Frömmigkeit ab. Man ist h. der Ansicht, daß S. sich vom Stamm des Reflexivpronomens * se ableitet, erweitert um bh zu * s-bh (> * Sabhos, “eigen”). Die ant. Lit…

Rutuli

(500 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
[English version] Volk in Süd-Latium im Gebiet um Ardea (Strab. 5,3,2-5: Ῥούτουλοι; Dion. Hal. ant. 1,43,2; 57,2; 59,2: Ῥοτόλοι; Ail. nat. 11,16: Ῥουτουλοί; Sil. 8,359: R.) an der Mündung des Fosso Molo und des Fosso Acquabona in den Fosso Incastro, der bei Castrum [1] Inui ins Meer mündet. Ihr legendärer König Turnus bewarb sich wie Aeneas (Aineias [1]) um die Hand der Lavinia, der Tochter des Königs Latinus, und fiel im Zweikampf (Cato orig. fr. 9-11; Verg. Aen. 7-12 passim; Liv. 1,2,1-6; Dion. Hal. ant. 1,59,2; 1,64,…

Uria

(319 words)

Author(s): Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara)
[German version] [1] City of the Sal(l)entini City of the Sal(l)entini, founded by Idomeneus [1] (Varro in Prob. in Verg. Ecl. 6,31), probably identical with Οὐερητόν/ Ouerētón (Str. 6,3,5: originally Barís; Ptol. 3,1,76; Tab. Peut. 7,2: Veretum) at Cape Leuca; modern Santa Maria di Vereto on the eastern coast of Italy with ancient remains; Messapian and Roman inscriptions [1; 2]. Str. 6,3,6 is unclear as to whether Hyrie at Hdt. 7,170 is to be identified with U. [1] or U. [2]. Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) Bibliography 1 C. Pagliara, Fonti per la storia di Veretum, in: Annali della F…

Volturnus

(583 words)

Author(s): Vanotti, Gabriella (Novara) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] River in southern Italy River in southern Italy (approximately 185 km in length) with a catchment area of approximately 5,677 km2. It rises on the south-eastern slopes of Monte Metuccia (near Aesernia) from a large karst spring, absorbs tributaries from the Monti del Matese and ultimately the Calor (modern Calore) to the west of mons Taburnus, before breaking to the north of the Tifata mons through to the Mare Tyrrhenum, where its alluvial deposits have created the plain of Campania (Str. 5,4,4;…