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Pasqually, Martines de

(4,201 words)

Author(s): Var, Jean-François
Pasqually, Martines de, * 1709 or 1726 / 1727 (Grenoble), † 20/21 Sep 1774 (Port-au-Prince) It has been well said of Martines de Pasqually that he was a “living enigma”. The mystery begins with his surname. Gérard van Rijnberk, in his work on Pasqually, takes two pages (I, 14-15) to list the variations of his name, whose diversity far exceeds the loose orthography of the time (it was only at the French Revolution that the registration of names was normalized and fixed). However, from comparison of official doc…

Philippe, Anthelme-Nizier

(1,609 words)

Author(s): Var, Jean-François
Philippe, Anthelme-Nizier known as “Maître Philippe”, * 2 Apr 1849 (Loisieux (Savoy)), † 2 Aug 1905 (l'Arbresle (near Lyon)) “Thaumaturge”, “unknown master”, “spiritual master”, “man of God”, “friend of God”: thus his disciples and admirers referred to the man they respectfully addressed as “Monsieur Philippe” or, later on, “Maître Philippe of Lyons”. Since he himself wrote nothing but a few cursory letters, the available information about him derives from these disciples, apart from a few newspaper articles and p…

Willermoz, Jean-Baptiste

(3,209 words)

Author(s): Var, Jean-François
Willermoz, Jean-Baptiste, * 10 Jul 1730 (Lyons), † 29 May 1824 (Lyons) Willermoz stemmed from an old bourgeois family of Saint-Claude (the name was originally written Vuillermoz) which, according to family documents, was of distantly Spanish origin. His father had settled in Lyon as a haberdashery merchant. The family included several priests, and young Willermoz was educated by the Jesuits. The eldest of twelve children, he was very soon sent out into the world, being apprenticed at the age of fourteen to …

Martinism: First Period

(8,262 words)

Author(s): Var, Jean-François
The title of → Papus's work Martinésisme, Willermosisme, Martinisme et Franc-Maçonnerie (Martinesism, Willermozism, Martinism, and Freemasonry, 1899) encompasses fairly exactly what modern historiography understands under the name of “Martinism”, at least for the period of its origins and early developments (18th-beginning of the 19th century). The expression “Second Martinism” applies to the history of the Martinist Order as “re-awakened”, as Papus put it – though in fact he founded it – in 1887 [→ Marti…