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(2,062 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
( ḥarawrāʾ , according to Yāḳūt, ii, 246, but wrongly), a locality, village or district ( kūra ) near al-Kūfa. During the pre-Islamic period and in the first century of Islam at least, Ḥarūrāʾ stood on the banks of the Euphrates or one of its canals, for a line of al-Aʿs̲h̲ā (al-Ṭabarī, ii, 730) speaks of “ s̲h̲aṭṭ Ḥarūra ”, but in the 3rd/9th century it was described as being in the desert ( ṣaḥrāʾ ) by the traditionist Ibn Dīzīl al-Hamdānī (d. 283/896; see Ibn Abi ’l-Ḥadīd, i, 215); the hydrographic system of the region had thus probably undergone a transformation. Of no importance from the po…

al-As̲h̲ʿarī, Abū Mūsā

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, ibn ḳays , Companion of the Prophet and military leader. Bornp about 614 A.D., Abū Mūsā, a native of the Yemen, left South Arabia by sea with several of his brothers and members of his tribe (the As̲h̲ʿar) and joined Muḥammad at Ḵh̲aybar at the time of the famous expedition against the Jews of that oasis (7/628) to swear allegiance to him (the information given in some sources [for example Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahdhīb , ii, 1265] according to which he was one of the emigrants who went to Abyssinia, is therefore most unlikely to be authentic; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Ist̄iʿāb , Ḥaydarā…

Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd Allāh

(1,964 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, full brother of Muḥammad [ q.v.] called al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, who rebelled with him against the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Manṣūr in 145/762-3. Their father ʿAbd Allāh, the son of al-Ḥasan (al-Mut̲h̲annā) b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and of Fāṭima bint al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī, ¶ was thus Ḥasanid through his father and Ḥusaynid through his mother, which earned him the by-name of al-Maḥḍ (of pure blood). He was considered as the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the Hās̲h̲imites (ʿAlids and ʿAbbāsids) as well as of the Ḥasanids, since he enjoyed great authority after his fat…

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb

(898 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, one of the most prominent personalities of the first generation of Muslims, and of the authorities most frequently quoted for Traditions. He derived his reputation not only from being a son of the Caliph, but also because his high moral qualities compelled the admiration of his contemporaries. At a time when the Muslims were being carried by their passions into civil war, Ibn ʿUmar was able to maintain himself aloof from the conflict; furthermore, he followed the precepts of Islām with such scrupulous ¶ obedience that he became a pattern for future generations, to such a degr…

D̲h̲ū Ḳār

(822 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, name of a watering-place near Kūfa, in the direction of Wāsiṭ (Yāḳūt, iv, 10), where one of the most famous Arab ayyām [ q.v.] took place. In contrast with most other clashes between Arabian tribes, this one had a historical importance because the Bakr b. Wāʾil tribe (a coalition of all its clans except the Banū Ḥanīfa) put other Arabs to flight (Tag̲h̲lib, Iyād, etc.) among whom, significantly, were regular Persian troops. Even if the battle was no more than a skirmish (though sources speak of several thousand comba…

ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAbbās

(1,784 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
(frequently Ibn ʿAbbās, without the article), Abu l-ʿAbbās, called al-Ḥibr ‘the doctor’ or al-Baḥr ‘the sea’, because of his doctrine, is considered one of the greatest scholars, if not the greatest, of the first generation of Muslims. He was the father of Ḳurʾanic exegesis; at a time when it was necessary to bring the Ḳurʾān into accord with the new demands of a society which had undergone a profound transformation, he appears to have been extremely skilful in accomplishing this task. He was born three years before the hid̲j̲ra, when the Hās̲h̲imite family was living shut u…

(al-)Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib

(10,546 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, grandson of the Prophet and son of Fāṭima [ q.v.], famous because of his revolt which ended tragically at Karbalāʾ on 10 Muḥarram 61/October 680. Childhood and youth. (Al-)Ḥusayn was born at Medina, according to the majority of the sources in the beginning of S̲h̲aʿbān 4/January 626. He was thus still a child when the Prophet died and could therefore have very few memories of his grandfather. A number of ḥadīt̲h̲s mention the affectionate phrases which Muḥammad is said to have used of his grandsons, e.g., “whoever loves them loves me and whoever hates them hates me” and “al-Ḥas…


(3,066 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, “the camel” is the name of the famous battle which took place in the month of D̲j̲umādā II 36/November-December 656 near al-Baṣra between the Caliph ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib on the one hand, and the Prophet’s widow ʿĀʾis̲h̲a [ q.v.] with the Companions of the Prophet Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbayd Allāh al-Taymī and al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām [ qq.v.] on the other. At that time it was these two companions who, after ʿAlī, had most authority among the Muslims. ʿĀʾis̲h̲a was completing the ʿumra in Mecca when she learned of the assassination of the Caliph ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, and…

al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Ḳays al-S̲h̲aybānī

(635 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite leader, opponent of Marwān b. Muḥammad ( — Marwān II). During the disturbances which followed the murder of the Caliph al-Walīd II, the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲ites resumed their campaign in Ḏj̲azīra and pushed forward into ʿIrāḳ, their leader at first being the Ḥarūrite Saʿīd b. Bahdal, and, after his death of the plague, al-Ḍaḥḥāk b. Ḳays al-S̲h̲aybānī, an adherent of the above-mentioned Ibn Bahdal. Several thousand fighters assembled under the standard of al-Ḍaḥḥāk; there were even among them Ṣufrites from S̲h̲ahrazūr. who, at that time, according to al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ

Ibn Abi ’l-Ḥadīd

(1,761 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, scholar of wide learning in the fields of Arabic language, poetry and adab , rhetoric, kalām [ q.v.] and of the early history of Islam; in addition he was an uṣūlī jurist [see uṣūl ] and an eminent writer of prose and poetry. Born at al-Madāʾīn on 1 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 586/30 December 1190, he died at Bag̲h̲dād in 655/1257 or 656/1258, i.e., either immediately before or immediately after the capture of the city by the Mongols (20 Muḥarram 656/28 January 1258); since Ibn al-Fuwaṭī states that he was able to escape the massacre by the invaders by taking refuge in the house of the wazīr Ibn al-ʿAlḳ…


(968 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, sulaymān , contemporary Tripolitanian Ibāḍī scholar and politician, who inspired the Arabs of his country in their struggle against Italy. He belonged to an old and influential Berber family of the D̲j̲abal Nafūsa (with branches at D̲j̲ādo, Kābaō and Ḏj̲erba, where there is a private bārūniyya library) and was the son of ʿAbd Allāh al-Bārūnī, the theologian, jurist and poet, who taught at the zāwiya of al-Bak̲h̲ābk̲h̲a, near Yefren. Sulaymān was suspected by the Ottoman government ¶ of nurturing separatist ideas and plotting the founding of an Ibāḍite imāmate. Proceedi…

ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib

(5,761 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, cousin and son-in-law of Muḥammad, and fourth caliph, was one of the first to believe in Muḥammad’s mission. Whether he was the second after Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a. or the third after Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a and Abū Bakr, was much disputed between S̲h̲īʿites and Sunnīs. He was at that time aged 10 or 11 at most, and Muḥammad had taken him into his own household to relieve the boy’s father Abū Ṭālib, who had fallen into poverty. One narrative, which is open to criticism on several counts, represents ʿAlī as having oc…

(al-)Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib

(3,663 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, son of ʿAlī and Fāṭima [ q.v.], claimant to the caliphate until he renounced the office in favour of Muʿāwiya b. Abī Sufyān, and, in the eyes of the S̲h̲īʿīs, the second imām . Early years. He was born in 3/624-5 (the month is uncertain; mid-Ramaḍān?) and given the name al-Ḥasan by Muḥammad, while his father wanted to call him Ḥarb; he lived with the Prophet for only seven years, but was nevertheless able later to recollect some of his phrases and actions (for example that Muḥammad threw back into the heap of ṣadaḳa dates one which he had already put into his mout…

D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma b. ʿĀmir

(427 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, an Ishmaelite tribe living at G̲h̲umaysāʾ, south-east of Mecca and not far from that city. Its genealogy is: Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma b. ʿĀmir b. ʿAbd Manāt b. Kināna [ q.v.] etc. (Wüstenfeld, ¶ Register zu den genealogischen Tabellen , 175 ff., attributes the following facts to the D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma b. ʿAdī b. Duʾil b. Bakr b. ʿAbd Manāt, etc. (Table N), without apparent justification). There was an ancient grudge between the tribe of the D̲j̲ad̲h̲īma and that of the Ḳurays̲h̲, although there was kindred between them: before…

ʿAḳīl b. Abī Ṭālib

(411 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, elder brother of ʿAlī, who was 20 years his junior. After fighting against the Muslims at Badr, where he was taken prisoner and ransomed by al-ʿAbbās, he became a convert to Islām. The sources give contradictory information as to the date of this event (after the capture of Mecca, according to al-Balād̲h̲urī; shortly before or after the pact of al-Ḥudaybiya, according to Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, etc.), as well as on his participation in the Ḵh̲aybar and Mūta expeditions, the capture of Mecca, and the bat…


(1,861 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, Of all the ḥarras dealt with in the preceding article, the one that stretches through the gardens of Medina on the north-eastern side of the town, known as the Ḥarrat Wāḳim , became, thanks to a famous battle in 63/683, al-Ḥarra par excellence. The situation in Medina was seriously disturbed some time after the accession to the throne of Muʿāwiya’s soa Yazīd. It led to a rebellion provoked by the indignation felt by men of piety at Yazīd’s scandalous conduct and the conviction that it was impossible to obey an imām of such a type. Beneath the religious aspects …

Bis̲h̲r b. Marwān

(1,065 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
b. al-ḥakam , Abū Marwān, an Umayyad prince, son of the Caliph, Marwān [ q.v.] and of Ḳuṭayya bint Bis̲h̲r (of the Banū D̲j̲aʿfar b. Kilāb, thus a Ḳaysite). He took part in the battle of Mard̲j̲ Rāhiṭ (65/684) and there killed a Kilāb chief. After his father’s accession to the Caliphate he followed him at the time of his expedition to Egypt, for the sources tell us that when in 65/684 Marwān had regained this province for the Umayyads, taking it from Ibn al-Zubayr [ q.v.] who had seized it in S̲h̲aʿbān 64/March-April 684, and had put his son, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz [ q.v.] in charge of the Prayer and the …

Dūmat al-D̲j̲andal

(2,069 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
, an oasis at the head of the Wādī Sirḥān which runs from south-east to north-west, linking central Arabia on one side and the mountains of Ḥawrān and Syria on the other; it is thus situated on the most direct route between Medina and Damascus, being about 15 days’ journey on foot from the former and about 7 days or rather more from the latter. The oasis is in a g̲h̲āʾiṭ “depression” or k̲h̲abt “vast low-lying area”, the length of which, according to Yāḳūt, is 5 parasangs or, in modern terms, according to Ḥāfiẓ Wahba, 3 mil…

Ibn Muld̲j̲am

(3,862 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Murādī , murderer of the caliph ʿAlī in 40/661. Three K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muld̲j̲am, considered as belonging to Kinda, al-Burak b. ʿAbd Allāh and ʿAmr b. Bakr al-Tamīmī, having met at Mecca, had long discussions, after the end of the Pilgrimage ceremonies, on the deplorable situation into which the Muslims had fallen because of ʿAlī, Muʿāwiya and ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀṣ, whom they regarded as being in error; spurred by an ardent desire to avenge their companions massacred at al-Nahrawān [ q.v.], they swore an oath to kill these three persons. Each of them…

al-Fayḍ b. Abī Ṣāliḥ

(263 words)

Author(s): Veccia Vaglieri, L.
S̲h̲īrawayh , Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar, vizier (?) of the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Mahdī. Born at Nīs̲h̲āpūr of a Christian father, al-Fayḍ seems to have been one of the g̲h̲ilmān of Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ [ q.v.]; he attracted attention by his talent and culture and, according to al-Ḏj̲ahs̲h̲iyārī ( Wuzarāʾ , 164-6), followed by Ibn K̲h̲allikān (vi, 25; tr. de Slane, iv, 358) and al-Fak̲h̲rī (ed. Derenbourg, 255-7; tr. Fagnan, 314-8; tr. C. E. J. Whitting, 183), he was appointed wazīr by al-Mahdī after the dismissal of Yaʿḳūb b. Dāwūd [ q.v.] in 166/782; he remained in office until the caliphate of al-Hā…
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