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Carme

(116 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάρμη; Kármē). By Zeus the mother of the Cretan local goddess Britomartis, who according to Paus. 2,30,3 and Diod. Sic. 5,76 is to be equated with  Dictynna. C. is the daughter of Eubulus and granddaughter of Carmanor [1], one of the close companions of Apollo, who atones him of the killing of the python; her mother is  Demeter. According to another genealogy, C. descends from the Agenor-son Phoenix and the Arabius-daughter Cassiopeia (Antoninus Liberalis 40). In view of these con…

Maron

(167 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μάρων; Márōn). Priest of Apollo in the Thracian city of Ismarus; first mentioned in the Cicones episode in the Odyssey: For being spared during a plundering raid by Odysseus' warriors, M. gives Odysseus amongst other things a heavy wine as a present, with which Odysseus can later stun the Cyclops (Hom. Od. 9,39-61; 196-211). M.'s name appears to be derived from the name of the Thracian city of Maronea [1] whose environs were known for good wine (Hom. Od. 9,45; Archil. fr. 2); a nu…

Itonus

(102 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἴτωνος; Ítōnos). Father of  Boeotus (only in Diod. Sic. 4,67,7 his son); eponym of the town of  Iton, situated close to Coronea in Boeotia, with an important sanctuary of Athena Itonia [1]. The homonymous place and sanctuary in Thessaly (situated between Larisa and Pherae) is an important indication of the conquest and settlement of Boeotia, starting from the north, which allegedly began sixty years after the fall of Troy (Thuc. 1,12,3). I. is, however, mentioned as eponymous hero only in connection with Boeotian settlement. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography 1 Sch…

Macar(eus)

(348 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μάκαρ/ Mákar, Μακαρεύς/ Makareús; Latin Macareus). Mythical king of Lesbos who resettled this island after it was depopulated through the Deucalian flood ( Deucalion) and thus gave it the name of Macaria; Lesbos is already called ‘seat of Macar’ by Homer (Hom. Il. 24,544; H. Hom. 1,37). In the last-mentioned reference, the information ‘son of Aeolus’ is added; this patronymicon was probably a reflection of the Aeolian settlement of Lesbos. The most detailed depiction of M. is provided by Diod. Sic. 5,81f.: according to this, M. was a grandson of Ze…

Graecus

(71 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γραικός; Graikós). According to Hes. fr. 5, 3 M.-W., the son of Zeus and Pandora (or the brother of Latinus, though according to Theog. 1013 the latter's mother is Circe) and the eponymous hero of the Greeks before they acquired the name Hellenes from  Hellen. The name suggests an Illyrian origin [1]. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography 1 Chantraine, s.v. G., 234. P. Dräger, Untersuchungen zu den Frauenkatalogen Hesiods, 1997, 27-42.

Gaieochos

(125 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (γαιήοχος; Gaiēochos). Ep. epithet meaning ‘earth shaker’, used in Homer as a metric substitute or complimentary cognomen for Poseidon (especially in conjunction with γαιήοχος ἐννοσίγαιος; gaiēochos ennosígaios). Only late antique texts extend the reference of gaieochos beyond Poseidon to Zeus (Opp. Hal. 1,74) and Oceanus (Quint. Smyrn. 2,208). In antiquity, it was generally understood as a composite of γαῖα and ἔχειν (etymologically not tenable) or ὀχεῖσθαι (either in the form of the earth carrying Poseidon as a r…

Geryoneus

(453 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γηρυονεύς; Gēryoneús; also Geryónēs, Geryṓn, Γηρυόνης, Γηρυών; Etruscan Cerun). Mythical giant with three heads and three bodies, residing on the island  Erytheia in the far west of the inhabited world (later generally identified with Gadeira/Cadiz: Hdt. 4,8, et al., in Ptolemy's Geographia 4,1,16, identified with Mauretania, euhemeristically relocated to Ambracia by Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 26), where he tends an especially splendid breed of red cattle. His father is Chrysaor, originated from Medusa, and his mother, an  Oceanid (Callirhoe). In the Greek myth, G.…

Hellen

(137 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἕλλην; Héllēn). Eponymous progenitor of the Hellenes, therefore of the entirety of the inhabitants of Greece; the individual tribes took their names from H.'s sons and grandsons  Dorus,  Xuthus (father of  Ion and  Achaeus [1]) and  Aeolus [1].  Pyrrha and either  Deucalion (Hes. fr. 2; schol. Hes. Op. 158a; Thuc. 1,3,12; Diod. Sic. 4,60,2) or Zeus (schol. Pl. Symp. 208d; Apollod. 1,49) are named as H.'s parents. In the Homeric catalogue of ships the Hellenes inhabit only a small …

Glaukopis

(116 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (γλαυκῶπις; glaukôpis). Epic epithet. In Homer used as a metrical substitute or complementary for the name Athene, above all in the connection γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη ( glaukôpis Athḗnē). The noun μήνη ( mḗnē, ‘moon’) is also documented several times as a reference word for glaukopis (first in Empedocles, 31 B 42 Diels/Kranz). The epithet can be interpreted in two ways: either as ‘owl-eyed’ (from γλαῦξ, glaûx, ‘owl’) or ‘with a sparkling look’ (from γλαυκός, glaukós, ‘sparkling’). Both interpretations were already represented in antiquity. The suffix limb -ωπι…

Coronus

(106 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κορωνός; Korōnós). Ruler of the  Lapithae, son of  Caeneus; C.'s son Leonteus, together with Polypoetes, led the contingent of the Lapiths before Troy. Homer mentions C.'s name in the catalogue of ships in order to give prominence the little-known Leonteus; in early mythology C. was probably associated with the  legend of the Argonauts, where Apoll. Rhod. also mentions him (1,57f.). A story which possibly reflects historical events is reported at Apollod. 2,154: according to it, C…

Canthus

(120 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάνθος; Kánthos). Argonaut from Euboea, in Apollonius Rhodius the son of Canethus, the eponym of a Euboean mountain, and grandson of Abas [1c], the eponym of the whole island under its old name Abantis (1,77). In Valerius Flaccus, C. is the son of Abas. C. scarcely makes an appearance in the story of the Argonauts, only his death in battle - either on the return journey in Libya (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1485-1501: he is the only one of the Argonauts to fall in battle there; cf. Orph. Arg. 141-143), or in Colchis fighting the Iazyges (Val. Fl. 6,317-341) is described in some detail. Visser…

Iphidamas

(85 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰφιδάμας; Iphidámas). Figure from the Trojan epic cycle, son of  Antenor [1] and Theano. Raised by Cisseus, his maternal grandfather, in Percote in Thrace, he left his home against his wife's wishes in order to assist the Trojans. The slaying of I. and his brother  Coon by  Agamemnon, described in Hom. Il. 11,218-263, was also depicted on the  Cypselus chest (Paus. 5,19,4). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography I. Espermann, Theano, Antenor und Antenoriden, 1980, 71-80 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, no. 180.

Hyrtacus

(87 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ὕρτακος; Hýrtakos). Named in the Trojan allies' catalogue of the Iliad as father of Asius, who was the ruler over Arisbe at the Hellespont (Hom. Il. 2,835-839). H. himself only appears in Asius' patronymic information; his name is possibly to be connected with a Cretan town by the name of Hyrtacina. A hero of the same name appears in Virgil's Aeneid as the father of Nisus (Verg. Aen. 9,176f.). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography Kamptz, 313f. P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, no. 325.

Mecisteus

(120 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μηκιστεύς; Mēkisteús). Son of the mythical king Talaus of Argos, brother of Adrastus [1]. In the ‘Iliad he is only mentioned as the victor in boxing at Oedipus' funeral games (Hom. Il. 23,678-680; likewise in Paus. 1,28,7). A passage in Herodotus (Hdt. 5,67), according to which he was killed by Melanippus together with Tydeus, indicates that his name was among the ‘Seven against Thebes’. However, Aischyl. Sept. 488 names Hippomedon [1], another son of Talaus (as does Apollod. 3,63…

Cometes

(154 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
(Κομήτης; Komḗtēs). [German version] [1] Lover of Aegiale(ia) Lover of  Aegiale(ia) wife of  Diomedes [1], the Achaean warrior at Troy. After Diomedes' return, C. tries to kill him; when Diomedes manages to save himself by finding refuge at an altar to Athena, C. leaves his homeland Argus (schol. Hom. Il. 5, 412). Mimnermus appears to have developed the structure of this myth as a parallel to the fate of  Agamemnon (fr. 17 G.-P.; cf. also Apollod. Epit. 6,9). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of the Aetolian king Thestius According to Paus. 8,45,6 son of the Aetolian ki…

Cestrinus

(76 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κεστρῖνος; Kestrînos). Eponym of the Greek region of  Cestrine, previously Cammania, in southern Thesprotia opposite the island of Cercyra (Steph. Byz. s.v. Καμμανία). C. is the son of  Helenus [1] and  Andromache; after the death of Helenus, Molossus, the son of Neoptolemus and Andromache, took power in Thesprotia, as a result of which C. emigrated to Cammania; as the new ruler he gave it its name (Paus. 1,11,1f.; 2,23,6). Visser, Edzard (Basle)

Caeneus

(110 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Καινεύς; Kaineús, Lat. Caeneus). The name of a Lapith ruler, father of the Argonaut  Coronus. In early Greek mythology, this figure is clearly only connected to centauromachy. Because C. is invulnerable, the  Centaurs destroy him by ramming him into the earth with trees and stones (first recorded by Pind. fr. 167). His story is later elaborated on whereby C. was originally a girl (Lat. Caenis) who was raped by Poseidon and then requests that he change her into a man (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1.57-64a; Ov. Met. 12.169-209; 459-535). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography F. Böme…

Campe

(94 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάμπη; Kámpē). Gigantic jaileress who stands guard in  Tartarus over the  Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires, monsters with one hundred hands. In the Titanomachy, Zeus follows the advice of Gaia and kills C. (according to Diod. Sic. 3.72.3 she is killed by Dionysus near the Libyan city of Zabrina) so that the former prisoners can support Zeus (Apollod. 1.6); a detailed description of C. as a sort of dragon (starting with the appellative meaning ‘caterpillar’) can be found in Nonnus, Dion. 18.236-264. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography W. Kroll, s.v. K., RE 10, 1842.

Cassiphone

(117 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κασσιφόνη, Kassiphónē, ‘Fratricide’). Daughter of  Odysseus and of  Circe, therefore sister of  Telegonus. C. is mentioned in description at Lycoph. 807ff.; the name itself is mentioned only in the Commentary of Tzetzes. This figure is probably a late classical or Hellenistic invention, intended to expand the structure of Telegonia: there Telegonus, whom he does not know, kills his father Odysseus and marries his stepmother Penelope; Telemachus, on the other hand, marries his step…

Cepheus

(262 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
(Κηφεύς; Kēpheús). [German version] [3] see  Constellations [German version] [1] Arcadian hero Arcadian local hero, son of  Aleus [1], the founder of Tegea, and of Neaera, founding hero of the city of  Caphyae (whose name is derived from C.). His daughter Antinoe founded Mantinea. C. later takes over the rulership of Tegea from his father. When  Hercules, after the conquest of the Neleid kingdom, sets off on a punitive expedition against the Spartan king  Hippocoon, he invites C. and his twenty sons to take…
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