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Carme

(116 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάρμη; Kármē). By Zeus the mother of the Cretan local goddess Britomartis, who according to Paus. 2,30,3 and Diod. Sic. 5,76 is to be equated with  Dictynna. C. is the daughter of Eubulus and granddaughter of Carmanor [1], one of the close companions of Apollo, who atones him of the killing of the python; her mother is  Demeter. According to another genealogy, C. descends from the Agenor-son Phoenix and the Arabius-daughter Cassiopeia (Antoninus Liberalis 40). In view of these con…

Maron

(167 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μάρων; Márōn). Priest of Apollo in the Thracian city of Ismarus; first mentioned in the Cicones episode in the Odyssey: For being spared during a plundering raid by Odysseus' warriors, M. gives Odysseus amongst other things a heavy wine as a present, with which Odysseus can later stun the Cyclops (Hom. Od. 9,39-61; 196-211). M.'s name appears to be derived from the name of the Thracian city of Maronea [1] whose environs were known for good wine (Hom. Od. 9,45; Archil. fr. 2); a nu…

Itonus

(102 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἴτωνος; Ítōnos). Father of  Boeotus (only in Diod. Sic. 4,67,7 his son); eponym of the town of  Iton, situated close to Coronea in Boeotia, with an important sanctuary of Athena Itonia [1]. The homonymous place and sanctuary in Thessaly (situated between Larisa and Pherae) is an important indication of the conquest and settlement of Boeotia, starting from the north, which allegedly began sixty years after the fall of Troy (Thuc. 1,12,3). I. is, however, mentioned as eponymous hero only in connection with Boeotian settlement. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography 1 Sch…

Cassiphone

(117 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κασσιφόνη, Kassiphónē, ‘Fratricide’). Daughter of  Odysseus and of  Circe, therefore sister of  Telegonus. C. is mentioned in description at Lycoph. 807ff.; the name itself is mentioned only in the Commentary of Tzetzes. This figure is probably a late classical or Hellenistic invention, intended to expand the structure of Telegonia: there Telegonus, whom he does not know, kills his father Odysseus and marries his stepmother Penelope; Telemachus, on the other hand, marries his step…

Gaieochos

(125 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (γαιήοχος; Gaiēochos). Ep. epithet meaning ‘earth shaker’, used in Homer as a metric substitute or complimentary cognomen for Poseidon (especially in conjunction with γαιήοχος ἐννοσίγαιος; gaiēochos ennosígaios). Only late antique texts extend the reference of gaieochos beyond Poseidon to Zeus (Opp. Hal. 1,74) and Oceanus (Quint. Smyrn. 2,208). In antiquity, it was generally understood as a composite of γαῖα and ἔχειν (etymologically not tenable) or ὀχεῖσθαι (either in the form of the earth carrying Poseidon as a r…

Geryoneus

(453 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γηρυονεύς; Gēryoneús; also Geryónēs, Geryṓn, Γηρυόνης, Γηρυών; Etruscan Cerun). Mythical giant with three heads and three bodies, residing on the island  Erytheia in the far west of the inhabited world (later generally identified with Gadeira/Cadiz: Hdt. 4,8, et al., in Ptolemy's Geographia 4,1,16, identified with Mauretania, euhemeristically relocated to Ambracia by Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 26), where he tends an especially splendid breed of red cattle. His father is Chrysaor, originated from Medusa, and his mother, an  Oceanid (Callirhoe). In the Greek myth, G.…

Ganymede

(531 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Γανυμήδης; Ganymḗdēs, Etruscan Catmite, Latin apart from G. also Catamitus). [German version] [1] Cupbearer to Zeus In Greek mythology (main source: Hom. Il 20,231-235) the son of the Dardanian king Tros (Iliad parva 29,4 PEG I: son of Laomedon), who as the most beautiful human was abducted to the Olympus to serve Zeus as cupbearer in eternal youth and to delight the gods with his beauty. He is either abducted in a windstorm (H. Hom. 5,202), by  Iris (in art, possibly already in Ibycus PMG Fr. 289), by  Hermes…

Odysseus

(2,574 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ὀδυσσεύς, Latin Ulixes, Etruscan utuze). [German version] I. Mythology Son of Laertes and Anticlea, husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus. One of the central figures of Greek mythology; in Homer's Odyssey, the focus of a major Archaic epic. This fact alone indicates the significance of the figure of  O., which contrasts with the other figures of Greek heroic myth through the emphasis on special intellectual abilities. Thus, he represents an archetype in the history of European thought; his presence in later literature a…

Istituto (Nazionale) di Studi Romani

(2,453 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Visser, Romke (Winsum RWG)
Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] A. Foundation (1923-1925) (CT) The foundation of the Istituto di Studi Romani (ISR) in 1925 was inextricably linked with contemporary Fascist cultural policies. In his plans, C. Galassi-Paluzzi (1893-1972), founder of the ISR and later its president (1934-1944), followed the views of the philosopher G. Gentile, Minister for Pubblica Istruzione (1922-1924) and Fascist Italy's leading intellectual. Gentile's policy can be described as a 'nationalization' of instruction, culture and science. His aim was an exten…

Magnes

(305 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μάγνης; Mágnēs). [German version] [1] Eponymous ruler of the central Greek territory of Magnesia Eponymous ruler of the central Greek region of Magnesia. His origins are variously described; the oldest reference (Hes. Cat. 7) calls him a son of Zeus and Thyia, daughter of Deucalion and a native of Pieria. Here Macedon, the mythical progenitor of the Macedonians, is referred to as his brother; according to Apollod. 1,16 he has a son named Pierus. These familial relationships indicate acquisition of land by the Magnesians from the north. Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Son o…

Lycaon

(658 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Oldest mythical king of Arcadia (Λυκάων; Lykáōn). Oldest mythical king of Arcadia, son of Pelasgus and of the daughter of Oceanus, Meliboea, or the mountain nymph Cyllene. L.'s sons are the founding heroes of all important Arcadian cities; his son Oenotrus, dissatisfied with his share of the inheritance, is said to have left his homeland and settled in Italy with several followers (hence the name Oenotria) (first in Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 156). The number of 50 sons mentioned in Apol…

Hippasus

(555 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἵππασος; Híppasos). Name often used in epic texts for figures lacking any further characterization, particularly common in patronymic information about less important heroes. Esp. interesting in this context are [1] - [4]: [German version] [1] Father of Actor, the Argonaut  Father of Actor, the Argonaut (Apoll. Rhod. 1,112; Hyg. Fab. 14). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Father of Charops  Father of  Charops [4] (Hom. Il. 11,426). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [3] Father of Hypsenor  Father of Hypsenor, killed by Deiphobus (Hom. Il. 13,411). Visser, Edzard …

Nestor

(1,290 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(Νέστωρ; Néstōr). [German version] [1] Son of Nesleus Important figure in Greek mythology, particularly in the legend of the Trojan War. N. represents the aging warrior who has lost some of his former physical strength but due to his wealth of experience fulfills an important function in the group of leaders and in the Greek army. N. is the son of Neleus (thus his fixed epithet Neleid [Νηλεΐδης; Nēleΐdēs]) and of Chloris [4]. He has two brothers by the names of Chromius and Periclymenus, who are of no mythological significance, and a sister Pero who appears to h…

Carcinus

(585 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Καρκίνος; Karkínos). [German version] [1] Cancer, the crab that was turned into a sign of the zodiac for biting Heracles in the foot at the behest of Hera while fighting the Hydra (Eratosth. Katasterismoi 11). The Alexandrian month of Karkinon (Καρκινών) was named after it. Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Epic poet C. of Naupactus, epic poet of the archaic period. In Paus. 10,38,11 C. is named, with reference to Charon of Lampsacus, as the author of the Ναυπάκτια ἔπη ( Naupáktia épē), evidently a history of this town, lying at the entrance to the Corinthian Gulf…

Marsyas

(971 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μαρσύας; Marsýas). [German version] [1] Phrygian rivergod and Celaenae's god of protection Phrygian river god and Celaenae's god of protection, represented as satyr or silenus. The name is derived from a toponym that can be found repeatedly throughout Asia Minor and Syria; the river, at the source of which Celaenae lies, also carries this name (M. [5]). M. was considered the discoverer of flute playing ( aulós), the inventor of the bandage used for flute playing ( phorbeiá) and of songs for the worship of the goddess Cybele. According to the myth, the possibility to pla…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…
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