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Gaul

(6,936 words)

Author(s): Waarden, Joop van
The geographical peculiarities of the land mass of Gaul have influenced its history, and the history of its church, in profound ways. On the other hand, it was history that made it into a coherent entity in the first place ( CAH, vol. X, 464-67; Delaplace & France, 2011, Introduction). Prior to the Roman conquest by Julius Caesar during the years between 59 BCE and 50 BCE, the territory was made up of a variety of tribes and cultures, predominantly Celtic but without a sense of unity. It was Roman imperialism that created Gaul, if only…
Date: 2020-09-21

Marcian

(961 words)

Author(s): Waarden, Joop van
Marcian (Μαρκιανός/ Markianos; c. 392–457 CE) was the eastern Roman emperor (450–457 CE) who convened the Council of Chalcedon to find a way out of the wrangling between those Christians who preferred to speak of “two natures” in Christ and those who preferred the language of “one nature.”A military tribune, probably from Illyricum, he came to serve as personal assistant of the magister utriusque militiae, “master of both forces” (senior general), Aspar. In 450 CE, after the sudden death of Theodosius II, who left no male heir, he was selected for succession…
Date: 2020-09-21

Eucherius of Lyon

(3,520 words)

Author(s): Waarden, Joop van
Eucherius (c. 381–393–c. 449–456 CE) is a characteristic representative of the early 5th-century CE milieu of aristocratic converts to the ascetic life centered on the island of Lérins. He subsequently became the backbone of the southern-gallic episcopate. Together with his wife Galla, their sons Salonius and Veranus, and (according to Ado Mart. 16 Nov.; PL 123.395) two daughters Consortia and Tullia, he retreated to Lérins some time between 411 and 423 CE, later to withdraw into even deeper solitude on the twin island of Lero. At Lérins, the sp…
Date: 2020-09-21

Honoratus Antoninus

(1,036 words)

Author(s): Waarden, Joop van
Honoratus Antoninus was bishop of Cirta/Constantina in Numidia (nowadays Constantine in Algeria) in the reign of the Vandal king Geiseric (r. 428–477 CE). He was committed to the Catholic resistance against the royal policy of repression in favor of “Arianism.” He is known for his only preserved letter (plausibly datable to c. 437 CE), in which he urges a certain Arcadius to hold to the Catholic belief in the Trinity, even at the risk of martyrdom.There are two problems with identification – part of the general difficulty in forming a profile of contemporary  Nicene b…
Date: 2020-09-21

Auspicius of Toul

(1,583 words)

Author(s): Waarden, Joop van
Auspicius (c. 390/400?–475/480? CE) was bishop of Tullum Leucorum (present-day Toul) in the former Roman province of Belgica Prima (capital Trier), then Frankish territory. He is traditionally the fifth in succession, and the first to be historically tangible (Duchesne, 1915, 62). The noble Gallo-Roman family of the Auspicii can be traced from the 3rd to the 7th century CE (Brandes, 1905, 13–14; TLL, vol. II, 1549, 46–58; PLRE, vol. I, 141; vol. II, 203). Presumably educated in the classical fashion, well connected, and comfortable, Auspicius would have fitted…
Date: 2020-09-21

Apollinaris of Valence

(1,357 words)

Author(s): Waarden, Joop van
Apollinaris (c. 450/460–c. 520/524 CE) was bishop of Valentia (present-day Valence), a suffragan diocese of Vienne in the Burgundian kingdom. He is among the first identifiable bishops of Valence (Duchesne, 1907, 223), in office well before 517 CE, probably already in the 490s CE (or even earlier, if we can believe the figure of 34 years in office from the Vita; a bishops’ list from Valence states that he was installed by his brother Alcimus Avitus “in the reign of Zeno,” emperor from 474 till 491 CE; see Duchesne, 1907, 217). He was probably born some…
Date: 2020-09-21

Merobaudes

(1,587 words)

Author(s): Waarden, Joop van
Flavius Merobaudes was a commanding officer, imperial adviser, and court poet in the 430s and 440s CE. The dates of his birth and death are unknown, although it has been argued that the latter occurred in the course of the 460s CE. “Flavius” was the usual courtesy title for officers (Cameron, 1988, 30), while the name Merobaudes points to Frankish descent, plausibly in the lineage of the 4th-century CE magister militum and emperor maker Flavius Merobaudes ( PLRE, vol. I, s.v. “Flavius Merobaudes 2”). He is the author of occasional poetry, including large-scale panegyrics…
Date: 2020-09-21

Paulinus of Pella

(1,800 words)

Author(s): Waarden, Joop van
Paulinus of Pella (376/377–after 459/460 CE) was an Aquitanian landed nobleman with properties in Gaul and Greece, grandson of Ausonius, who ended his life in precarious circumstances due both to a family feud and to his not being able to cope with the disruptive Germanic presence in Gaul. He is the author of an autobiographical poem giving thanks for God’s providence, the Eucharisticos, which he finalized at the age of 83, and putatively also of a short poem called the Oratio. The Eucharisticos makes him one of the best-known Gallic individuals of late antiquity, whose work …
Date: 2020-09-21