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Hong Kong

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Wagner, Rudolf G.
[German Version] I. General Facts, History of Religion – II. Christian History I. General Facts, History of Religion The island became a crown colony in 1841, following the Opium War. The economic opportunities as well as the safety of the colony attracted Chinese immigrants from South China. The latter largely retained their religious customs, although they adapted these to the new environment: in the city, the family and the individual replaced the clan as tradents of the ancestor cult (Ancestors, Cult of: IV…

Gützlaff, Karl August Friedrich

(664 words)

Author(s): Wagner, Rudolf G.
[German Version] (Jul 8, 1803, Pyrzyce [Ger. Pyritz], Poland – Aug 9, 1851, Canton) came from Pomerania and went to China (V) as an independent evangelical missionary. Born into an artisan family of Herrnhuter tradition (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren), Gützlaff was gripped by the missionary fever of the second Awakening movement (Revival/Revival movements: I) at an early age. Showing little interest in the disputes between Christian denominations and convinced that a Chinese Mission could only re…


(1,345 words)

Author(s): Reiter, Florian C. | Jansen, Thomas | Wagner, Rudolf G.
[German Version] I. Taoism Taiping signifies “Great Peace,” “General Prosperity,” and “Universal Harmony.” The Book of Universal Harmony ( Taiping Jing) reflects the ideology of the militarily organized Taiping movement (2nd cent. ce) under the leadership of the self-appointed “generals” Zhang ¶ Jue (or Zhang Jiao; d. 184) and his two brothers. The deified Lao Tsu (Taishang Laojun) is said to have revealed the original title Taiping qingling shu to a certain Gan (or Yu) Ji in Shandong (Langye). The wars of the late Han Dynasty, the hardships suffered by the popu…