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Saenianus

(62 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] Roman orator from the Early Imperial Period whose origin and life are obscure. Seneca the Elder, to whom we owe the few testimonies (Sen. Controv. 5,2; 7,5,10; 9,2,28; Sen. Suas. 2,18) denounces him as 'crazy', 'feeble-minded' and 'vulgar'. Allowing for personal animosity on Seneca's part, it still seems that S. preferred abstruse and non-pertinent arguments. Walde, Christine (Basle)

Carya

(71 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Καρύα; Karúa). Daughter of the Laconian King Dion, beloved of Dionysus. Her sisters, Orphe and Lyko, who lock up C., are struck with insanity by Dionysus and transformed into the cliffs of Taygetus; however C…

Sibyl

(678 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
(Σίβυλλα/ Síbylla, Latin Sibylla). [German version] A. General Seer inspired by the gods from birth In Greco-Roman culture Sibyls are an unspecified number of seers, inspired by the gods from birth, who retain their virginity throughout their life, grow very old, but are not immortal. They are sometimes mentioned in the same context as Apollo and in this show certain similarities to other prophetesses, such as Cassandra or the Pythia [1]. The Sibyls function as mediators between gods and men but do not act as part of an institutionalized oracle; their prophecies are always unsolicited and they make their pronouncements after often very long journeys (Paus. 10,12,5). They convey their prophecies (usually about catastrophes) in their own names in hexameters and write them down (e.g. on plant leaves), though the 'Sibylline Books' and 'Sibylline Oracles' ( Sibyllini libri, Sibyllina oracula ) that were spread under the name of the S. are pseudepigraphy of unknown provenance.…

Travel literature

(500 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] The term travel literature (TL) refers to a heterogeneous group of literary products that belong to categories such as travel report, travel description (travel guide, travel handbooks) or travel novel, categories that in themselves are not clearly defined. Precursors of modern travel guides and handbooks are, for instance, the Greek peri(h)ēgḗseis (Periegetes, cf. e.g. Pausanias [8], Heraclides [18]) as well as sea maps with descriptions of coasts (Periplous). …

Urania

(271 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
(Οὐρανία/ Ouranía, Latin Urania). [German version] [1] Muse who surveys the course of the world One of the Muses (Hes. Theog. 78), mother of Linus (father Apollo: Excerpta ex Hygino 174 Rose) and Hymenaeus [1] (Catull. 61,2). From remarks in Plato (Phaed. 259d) and from the time of Aratus [4] onwards, U. can clearly be identified as patron of Astronomy/Astrology (pictorial representations with globe, pointer; [1]), the natural sciences and - because of her cosmic dimension (U. brings light into the darkness) -…

Iphimedea

(118 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
(Ἰφιμέδεια; Iphimédeia). [German version] [1] Lover of Poseidon Daughter of Triops, wife of Aloeus, lover of Poseidon, father of her children, the  Aloads Otus and Ephialtes (Hom. Od. 11,304; Pind. Pyth. 4,89; Apollod. 1,53; Hyg. Fab. 28). I. and her daughter Pancratis (Pancrato) play a part in the prehistory of Naxos (Diod. Sic. 5,50f.; Parthenius 19): the Aloads pursue the Thracians, who have abducted th…

Ker

(370 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Greek ἡ Κήρ; hē Kḗr). From Homer, two meanings are attested for the name K.: 1. as ‘pest’, ‘malignant spirit’, ‘ruin’ and ‘death’ (Hom. Il. 2,302; 12,326-327; Od. 22,66). 2. as ‘an individual's fate’. The first kind of Ker, which appears alone, but mostly in large numbers (

Ethopoeia

(233 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (ἠθοποιία/ ēthopoiía; Lat. ethopoeia, notatio). Ethopoeia means the representation of the character (  êthos ) of an orator or another person by (imitative) speech (  mímēsis ), which may be effected as speech without dialogue,  dialogue or  monologue. In ancient rhetorical theory, ethopoeia has been included from Aristotle as a reproducible quality among t…

Imbrius

(48 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] …

Cercopes

(247 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)

Cilix

(105 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] …

Mneme

(123 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Μνήμη/ Mnḗmē, lat. Memoria). In literary sources, starting with the Hellenistic period, personified memory, with Lethe as its counterpart (Anth. Pal. 10,67). M. is largely identical to Mnemosyne (Phil. De plantatione 129 Wendland), but is rarely more than an abstraction (cf. relief of Homer  by Archelaus [9] of Priene, where she is portrayed next to Physis, Arete, Pistis and Sophia [1]). In Ascra, the cult association of the Aloads worshipped her, together with Melete (‘diligence’)…

Nyktophylax

(51 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)

Lernus

(84 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
(Λέρνος; Lérnos). [German version] [1] Aetolian Aetolian, father of Palaemonius the Argonaut, whose real father was considered to be Hephaestus (Apoll. Rhod. 1,202ff.). Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Argive Ar…

Combe

(121 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Κόμβη; Kómbē, Lat. Combe). Daughter of the Phlian river-god Asopus and Metope; regarded since Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 129), also called Chalcis, as the namesake of the eponymous city on Euboea (cf. Diod. Sic. 4,72; Zenob. 6,50). According to a tale recounted exclusively by Nonnus, C. was the mother of the seven Euboean Corybantes ( Couretes; Nonnus, Dion. 13,135ff.). With them she fled from her husband Socus to Crete, Phrygia, and finally Athens to  Cecrops, who killed Socus, thus enabl…

Pavor

(65 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] …

Iphicles

(146 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰφικλῆς; Iphiklês, also Ἴφικλος; Íphiklos). Son of  Alcmene and  Amphitryon, twin (half-)brother of  Heracles, for whose godlike powers he is used as a foil. In their cot he flees from the snakes, which Hercules strangles (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 69). I. participates in the Calydonian Hunt and in Hercules' Trojan campaign (Diod. Sic. 4,49,3). …

Inventio

(687 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (εὕρεσις, heúresis: invention, finding sc. of ideas). In the system of rhetoric, inventio

Momos

(113 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
[German version] (Μῶμος/ Mômos). Greek personification of censoriousness, son of Nyx/Night (Hes. Theog. 214). In the Kýpria, M. is an advisor to Zeus (Kypria fr. 1 EpGF). Iulianus (Ep. 50) tells that M. was gripped by excessive rage, because he could find no fault with Aphrodite. After Callimachus, who often refers to him in his literary feuds as the embodiment of the stu…

Lavinia

(300 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle)
(Greek Λαῦνα/ Laûna). Name of two female characters who are linked with the Aeneas myth ( Aeneas). [German version] [1] Daughter of Anius Daughter of Anius - the priest king of Delos at the time of the Trojan War (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,59,3) - who marries Aeneas (Ps…
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