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Salas

(129 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[English version] (Σάλας). Fluß in der Germania Magna (Strab. 7,1,3), h. die thüringische Saale, ein linker Nebenfluß der Elbe. Der Name leitet sich von den Salzvorkommen der durchflossenen Landschaften ab. Die fränkische Saale, die in den Main fließt, glaubte man bei Tac. ann. 13,57 zu erkennen; hier dürfte es sich aber um die Werra handeln. In der vorröm. Eisenzeit war das thüringische Saalegebiet v. a. Siedlungsraum der Kelten, es finden sich hier aber auch südl. Ausläufer der Jastorf-Kultur. A…

Vindobona

(928 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce | Legio | Limes | Pannonia Roman camp with civilian settlement on the Istrus (Danuvius/Danube), in Pannonia superior; the modern Vienna. The etymology of the place-name V. is disputed, but a Celtic origin may be assumed; the modern name Vienna/Wien probably refers to the Slavic (?) name of the Wien river. The first literary occurrence is in Ptol. 2,14,3 (Οὐι[νδ]όβονα/ O ui[nd] óbona; cf. Tab. Peut. 5,1: Vindomana; It. Ant. 34,25; 34,28; Not. Dign. Occ. 34,25; Aur. Vict. Caes. 16,14; (Ps.-)Aur. Vic…

Vallatum

(217 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Station on the road from Regina Castra (modern Regensburg) to Augusta [7] Vindelicum (modern Augsburg; It. Ant. 250,5); station of the last unit of the Legio III Italica and an ala [2] (Not. Dign. Occ. 25,17; 35,26). The place name (which implies a pre-Roman wall structure without ditches) and distance data in It. Ant. suggest that V. was in the walled fort of the Celtic oppidum (II) of Manching; there are no indications there of a late Antiquity military installation, however. Since the excavation of a small late Antiquity fort on the Frauenbe…

Ulmerugi

(124 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Gothic * Hulmarugeis, 'Island Rugians'). Germanic people on the islands in the southern Mare Suebicum (modern Baltic) near the mouth of the Oder, close neighbours of the Rugi, who were settled in Pomerania. An etymological relationship between the name U. and the island of Rügen is not confirmed. The U. were driven from their homeland by the Goti advancing out of Scandinavia (Iord. Get. 26). In Old Norse poetry they are found as the Holmrygir; they are also mentioned by the author of the Old English poem Widsith [1. 64], who can be dated to the 6th cent. AD. Waldherr, Gerhar…

Salas

(149 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σάλας; Sálas). River in Germania magna (Strab. 7,1,3), the modern Thuringian Saale, a left-bank tributary of the Elbe. The name derives from the salt deposits found in the areas through which the river runs. It has been argued that the Franconian Saale, which flows into the Main, was referred to in Tac. Ann. 13,57; this, however, must be the Werra. In the pre-Roman Iron Age, the Thuringian-Saale region was mostly a settlement area of the Celts, although southern fringes of the Jas…

Taifali

(199 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ταΐφαλοι/ Taḯphaloi, Suda s. v. Τ.; also Taifruli). Semi-nomadic Eastern Germanic equestrian people, recorded in the mid-3rd cent. AD in Dacia (Daci) and Moesia (Moesi; Iord. Get. 91) and then with the Tervingi in the north of Transylvania (Eutr. 8,2,2). In the middle of the 4th cent., they probably settled to the east of Muntenia (in modern Romania) as far west as the Alutus (modern Olt) with their core in the Muntenian Baragan Steppe. Earliest mention in literature: Pan. Lat. 11…

Teurnia

(198 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia (Τεουρνία/ Teournía). Celtic settlement (Plin. HN 3,146; Ptol. 2,13,3; Late Antiquity Tiburnia; Eugippius 17,21: metropolis Norici), modern St. Peter im Holz (Carinthia, Austria). Traces of settlement on the Holzer mountain 4 km to the west of Spittal in the valley of the Dra(v)us (modern Drau) extend back to the 11th cent. BC. Under Claudius [III 1], T. became a municipium ; its territory encompassed the western part of modern Carinthia as far as the Tauern mountains. Urba…

Vindelici

(210 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Οὐινδόλικοι/ Ouindólikoi). Celtic people on the Upper Bavarian-Upper Swabian plateau, probably also in Vorarlberg and Tyrol. According to an inscription on the Tropaeum Alpium (Tropaea Augusti; cf. CIL V 7817; Plin. HN 3,136 f.; CIL V 4910: Vindolici), there were at least four sub-tribes of the V.; according to Plin. HN 1,133 many sub-tribes made up the V. Str. 4,6,8 counts the Licattii (Licates, with Damasia), the Clautenatii (Κλαυτηνάτιοι/ Klautēnátioi), the Vennones who were probably rather Raetian, the Estiones (Ἐστίωνες/ Estíōnes, with Cambodunum [1]/m…

Rugi

(368 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] ( Rugii, Rogi; Ῥυγοί/ Rhygoí). East Germanic tribe mentioned by various ancient authors [1. 1213 f.] whose oldest places of residence were probably south-western Norway and the Vistula delta. Tac. Germ. 43,6 is the first to mention them and localizes them between the Oder and the Vistula. In the course of time, they moved south and, in the 1st half of the 5th cent. AD, they appeared on the central Danube and belong to the empire of the Hunni, albeit with their own king. Either startin…

Virdo

(187 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Virda). River which flows from the Allgäu Alps northwards, approximately parallel to the Licca (modern Lech), through the Alpine foothills, modern river Wertach. After 133 km, it joins the river Licca in Augusta [7] Vindelicum (modern Augsburg) (cf. Ven. Fort. 641; Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 2,13). For the name, Celtic ('powerful', 'speedy') or Roman (from Latin viridis = 'green', after the colour of the water) origins might be assumed; from the 10th/11th cent., Werthahe/-a, Wertha. Segments of the valley of the V. form …

Quadi

(216 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[English version] (Κούαδοι, Κουάδοι). Die erstmals bei Tac. ann. 2,63,6 erwähnten Q. gehörten zu den Suebi (Elbgermanen). Sie wanderten nach 9 v. Chr. zusammen mit den Marcomanni vom Main nach Osten (Südmähren, Niederösterreich nördl. der Donau, Südslowakei). Ab 19 n. Chr. erstreckte sich das Herrschaftsgebiet inter Marum et Cusum, d. h. zw. der h. March und dem regnum Vannianum (Vannius). Bis zu den Markomannenkriegen lebten sie weitgehend in friedlicher Koexistenz mit Rom mit wachsender Abhängigkeit von Rom und ausgeprägter Romanisierung der Oberschi…

Rugi

(318 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[English version] ( Rugii, Rogi; Ῥυγοί). Von verschiedenen ant. Autoren [1. 1213 f.] erwähnter ostgerman. Stamm, dessen älteste Wohnsitze wohl in SW-Norwegen und im Weichsel-Delta lagen. Tac. Germ. 43,6 erwähnt sie erstmals und lokalisiert sie zw. Oder und Weichsel. Im Laufe der Zeit zogen sie nach Süden und erschienen als Angehörige des Reichs der Hunni, aber mit eigenem König, in der 1. H. des 5. Jh. n. Chr. an der mittleren Donau. Entweder bereits ab 430 - dann in Abhängigkeit von den Hunni - ode…

Regina Castra

(366 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Christentum | Handel | Legio | Legio | Limes | Raeti, Raetia Legionslager an der Donau gegenüber der Mündung des Flusses Regen, h. Regensburg (Tab. Peut. 4,4; Itin. Anton. 250,1: Regino; Not. dign. occ. 35,17; Itin. Anton. 259,3; 6: ad castra; Meilensteine [1; 2]: a legione; CIL V 32909: D( omo) Regino; erst ma. überl., aber möglicherweise auf eine kelt. Wz. zurückgehender Name für die zugehörige Zivilsiedlung: Radaspona). Errichtet in den 70er J. des 2. Jh. n. Chr. als Standquartier der legio III Italica (CIL III 1196…

Vistula

(141 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] (Οὐιστούλα/ Ouistoúla). The main river in modern Poland (Amm. Marc. 22,8,38: Bisula; Plin. HN 4,81; 97; 100: Vistla, Visculus; derived from Indo-European *vis = 'to flow': Germanic *Wistlo, Slavonic Visla), German Weichsel, Polish Wisła. The V.'s source rivers, the Black and White Vistula, rise in the Jablunka mountains in the western Beskids, accurately given in Ptol. 2,11,4; 3,5,5 as in the east of the Asciburgium mountains. Its wide-branching delta (modern Bay of Gdansk) formed a natural gateway…

Veldidena

(196 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Township at the foot of Mount Isel on a cone of debris and alluvial deposits above the River Sill on the route of the Brenner pass (It. Ant. 256; 258 f.; 275; 279 f., possibly identical with the Vetonia in Tab. Peut. 4,2), modern Wilten (a southern district of Innsbruck). Traces from the La Tène period (La Tène culture) where a settlement existed from the 1st to the 4th cent. AD, probably beneath the modern White Canon Abbey (buildings about 500 m2 in area; Mansio ?). To the north of V., three three-aisled horrea ('stor…

Vandals

(758 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] East Germanic tribe or ethnic group. Information about their early history and origin (possibly from southwestern Sweden and northern Denmark [1]) is hypothetical. Late references to wars with the Goti and Langobardi (Iord. Get. 26 f.; Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 1,7 ff.) are also problematic. According to Plin. HN 4,99 f., V. designates a group of tribes (possibly identical with the Vandilii: Tac. Germ. 2,4). They probably belonged to the cult-based grouping of tribes called the Lugii [1] and were related to the…

Silingi

(85 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Vandal tribe originally from the area of modern Silesia (Ptol. 2,11,18: Σιλίγγαι/ Silíngai). In AD 406 they crossed the Rhenus (Rhine) - as did other Vandali - along with the Alani and Suebi and moved into Gallia and further into Hispania. For the year 411, the tribe is documented in Hispania Baetica (Hydatius, Continuatio 49, in: Chron. min. 2,18). In 416-418 they were attacked and destroyed by the Visigoths on Roman orders. Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) Bibliography TIR M 33 Praha, 1986, 78.

Thuringi

(178 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, formed in the 3rd/4th cents. AD out of the Hermunduri; first mentioned in c. AD 400 (Vegetius Renatus, De mulomedicina 3,6,3). The core settlement of the T. was to the north of the Thuringian Forest as far as the middle reaches of the Albis (modern Elbe). In the 5th cent. the tribe appears to have consolidated itself in its core territory. Immediate neighbours of the T. were the  Saxones to the north and the Alamanni to the south. Originally, their dead were cremated and buried in…

Sorviodurum

(240 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] Auxiliary fort site in Raetia (Tab. Peut. 4,4; Raeti, Raetia), modern Straubing (in Lower Bavaria). Despite the Celtic root of the name no pre-Roman settlement is known. From the early Flavian period (69-79), four forts altogether were built at a strategically important position on the southern bank of the Danube (lower terrace) to the southeast of the Allachbach; in the neighbourhood an extended vicus developed as well as a river port (until the Trajanic or early Hadrianic period). Traces of six training camps have been fo…

Virunum

(225 words)

Author(s): Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Limes | Pannonia | Rome | Rome Italic-Roman trade centre (Noric iron) on the Magdalensberg (1058 m) in Carinthia in Austria, on the eastern edge of the Zollfeld with a sanctuary on the peak of the mountain. The identity of V. with an indigenous Celtic centre, occasionally identified with Noreia, has yet to be proven. About the middle of the 1st cent. AD, the settlement centre was relocated to the nearby Zollfeld. From the time of Claudius [III 1] a municipium ('Claudium V.', Plin. HN 3,16), until the second hal…
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