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Westminster Assembly

(281 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[German Version] (of Divines) was a 17th-century Puritan/Presbyterian council that drafted the Westminster Confession and Catechisms, along with the Directory for Public Worship of God and the Form of Presbyterial Church Government, utilized in the Church of Scotland and other Presbyterian churches. The Long Parliament had originally called the Westminster Assembly in 1643 to revise the Thirty-Nine Articles ( Book of Common Prayer). However, after the House of Commons subscribed the Solemn League and Covenant (Covenanters) with the Scots on Sep 25, 1643, t…

Old Lights

(173 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[German Version] is the name given to those Congregational ministers and parish communities in New England that opposed the Great Awakening (Revival/Revival movements: II) of the 1730s and 1740s, associated with G. Whitefield and J. Edwards. The Old Lights proper, such as C. Chauncy and James Dana, tended towards moderatism and Unitarianism, and should be distinguished from the Old Calvinists, such as Moses Mather, who tried to maintain traditional Reformed orthodoxy in the face of the Pietism of …

Thornwell, James Henley

(166 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[German Version] (Dec 9, 1812, Marlborough District, SC – Aug 1, 1862, Charlotte, NC). Thornwell graduated from South Carolina College in 1831 and studied privately for the Presbyterian ministry. He served three brief pastorates in South Carolina, and taught at South Carolina College from 1838 to 1839 and from 1841 to 1851, becoming president from 1852 to 1855, before accepting the chair of theology at Columbia Theological Seminary (1855–1862). A staunch Old School Presbyterian, Thornwell champion…

New Lights

(179 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[German Version] New Lights, a group of loosely affiliated congregational ministers and churches in New England that supported the transatlantic revivals of the Great Awakening (Revival/Revival Movements) connected with G. Whitefield. While Whitefield’s dramatic appeals for conversion provoked controversy and opposition from Old Lights Congregationalists in New England and Old Side Presbyterians in the middle colonies, it also sparked imitation. A wave of itinerant ministers began to cross parish b…

Taylor, Nathaniel William

(159 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[German Version] (Jun 23, 1786, New Milford, CT – Mar 10, 1858, New Haven, CT). After graduating at Yale in 1807, Taylor studied theology with T. Dwight and was ordained pastor of the First Congregational Church of New Haven (1812–1822). From 1822 to 1858 he served as professor of theology at Yale, where he articulated the highly controversial “New Haven Theology,” a version of Edwardsian (J. Edwards) Calvinism that sought to promote revival (Revival/Revival movements: II) and evangelical piety, i…

Westminster Confession

(523 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[German Version] (of Faith; 1646, printed 1647). Produced by the Westminster Assembly during the English Civil War on behalf of the Long Parliament, the Westminster Confession is known as the most thorough creedal statement of Puritan (Puritans/Puritanism) covenant theology (Covenant: V. 1).Characteristic of the Westminster Confession (Articles of Faith: I, 5), with its precision of thought and clarity of expression, is its concise statement of doctrine in an attempt to remain faithful to the teaching of Scripture. The Westminster Confession begins with a clear statement…

Taylor

(147 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[English Version] Taylor, Nathaniel William (23.6.1786 New Milford, CT – 10.3.1858 New Haven, CT). Nach College-Abschluß in Yale 1807 und Theologiestudium bei T. Dwight wurde T. an der First Congregational Church in New Haven zum Pfarrer ordiniert (1812–1822). Von 1822–1858 Theologieprof. in Yale, entwickelte er die kontroverse New Haven Theology, eine Form des Calvinismus nach J. Edwards mit Tendenz zu evangelikaler Erweckungsfrömmigkeit (Erweckung: II.), die Ch.G. Finney, H. W. und L. Beecher und …

Westminster Assembly

(283 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[English Version] (of Divines), puritanisch-presbyterianisches Kirchenkonzil im 17.Jh., auf dem die Westminster Confession und Katechismen konzipiert wurden, außerdem die Kirchenordnung (The Directory for Public Worship of God) und Kirchenleitung (The Form of Presbyterial Church Government), wie sie in der Church of Scotland und anderen presbyterianischen Kirchen (Presbyterianer) gelten. Das Long Parliament hatte die W.A. 1643 urspr. einberufen, um die 39 Artikel zu revidieren (Book of Common Pray…

Westminster Confession

(473 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[English Version] (of Faith; 1646, gedr. 1647), während des engl. Bürgerkrieges im Auftrag des Long Parliament durch die Westminster Assembly formuliert, ist die W.C. die ausführlich ausgearbeitete Glaubensaussage puritanischer (Puritaner) Bundestheol. (Bund: V.,1.; Föderaltheologie: II.). Kennzeichnend für die W.C. (Bekenntnisschriften: I.,5.) mit seiner Klarheit in Gedankenführung und Formulierung sind die präzise gefaßten, schriftgemäß ausgewiesenen Lehraussagen. Die W.C. beginnt mit einer dezidierten Lehre von der Hl. Schrift, gefolgt von Kap. …

New Lights

(179 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[English Version] New Lights, eine Gruppe lose verbundener kongregationalistischer Geistlicher und Gemeinden in Neuengland, welche die durch G. Whitefield geprägten transatlantischen Erweckungsbewegungen (»Great Awakening«) unterstützten. Während Whitefields dramatische Appelle zur Bekehrung den Widerstand der Old Lights in Neuengland und der Old Side-Presbyterianer in den mittleren Kolonien hervorriefen, ermunterten sie andere zur Nachahmung. Eine regelrechte Welle von Wanderpredigern begann die …

Old Lights

(183 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[English Version] . Als »O.L.« bez. man die kongregationalistischen Geistlichen und Gemeinden in Neuengland, die sich der durch G. Whitefield und J. Edwards geprägten Großen Erweckungsbewegung (: II.; »Great Awakening«) der 30er und 40er Jahre des 18.Jh. widersetzten. Die O.L. im engeren Sinne, wie Ch. Chauncy und James Dana, neigten dem Moderatismus und Unitarismus zu, und müssen von den »Old Calvinists« wie Moses Mather unterschieden werden. Letztere versuchten, die traditionelle ref. Orthodoxie…

Plan of Union

(161 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[English Version] (1801), Unionsvereinbarung zw. der General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the USA und der General Association of Connecticut (Congregational). Da beide Körperschaften der Westminster Confession verpflichtet waren, sollte der P. ermöglichen, daß Geistliche der einen Kirche in der jeweils anderen Dienst tun konnten. In den 20er Jahren des 19.Jh. waren nahezu alle kongregationalistischen Gemeinden in New York und Ohio den Presbyterianern angeschlossen, während sie gleichzeit…

Winebrenner

(173 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[English Version] Winebrenner, John (24.3.1797 Glade Valley, MD – 12.9.1860 Harrisburg, PA). Nach Studium am Dickinson College (Carlisle, PA) wurde er 1820 in der German Reformed Church zum Pfarrer ordiniert. Er stand der Erweckungsbewegung (: II.) nahe, was in seiner Gemeinde in Harrisburg, PA, zur Spaltung und 1828 zu seinem Ausschluß aus der ref. Kirche durch deren Synode führte. Zus. mit seinen Anhängern gründete er 1830 die rel. reaktionäre Church of God (PA, OH). Forthin wandte sich W. gegen …

Thornwell

(168 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[English Version] Thornwell, James Henley (9.12.1812 Marlborough District, SC – 1.8.1862 Charlotte, NC). Nach dem Besuch des South Carolina College mit Studienabschluß 1831 bildete Th. sich selbst zum presbyterianischen Pfarrer weiter. In South Carolina hatte er kurzzeitig drei Pfarrstellen inne, unterrichtete 1838/39 und 1841–1851 am South Carolina College, dessen Präsident er von 1852–1855 war; von dort wurde er auf einen theol. Lehrstuhl am Columbia Theological Seminary (1855–1862) berufen. Als s…

Windthorst, Ludwig

(283 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1812, Kaldenhof estate near Ostercappeln – Mar 14, 1891, Berlin) was the outstanding representative of political Catholicism in the 19th century and the most important parliamentary adversary of O. v. Bismarck. His political program was characterized by vigorous defense of the rights of the church, resistance to the liberal idea of the state, commitment to constitutional principles, and sympathy with the goal of a Greater Germany. In the kingdom of Hanover, he was a membe…

Plan of Union

(184 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter
[German Version] (1801), an arrangement between the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America and the General Association of Connecticut (Congregational). Since both bodies were committed to the doctrines of the Westminster Confession, the Plan attempted to reconcile polity differences so that Congregational ministers could serve as pastors of Presbyterian churches and vice versa. By the 1820s almost all of the Congregational churches in New York and the Western Reserve of Ohio had joined Presbyterians, while retaining…

Machen, John Gresham

(148 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter J.
[German Version] (Jul 28, 1881 – Jan 1, 1937) studied at Johns Hopkins University, Princeton University, and Princeton Seminary, as well as concluding his graduate studies at Marburg and Göttingen, before he returned as lecturer (1906–1914) and assistant professor (1914–1929) of New Testament at Princeton Seminary. He soon became a leading conservative voice in the 1920s fundamentalist-modernist controversy in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). He defended traditional orthodoxy in such works as The Origin of Paul's Religion (1920), Christianity and Liberalism (1923), and The V…

McCosh, James

(179 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter J.
[German Version] (Apr 1, 1811, Carsekeoch, East Ayrshire, Scotland – Nov 16, 1894, Princeton, NJ), philosopher and Presbyterian theologian. McCosh studied in Glasgow and Edinburgh and served as a Presbyterian minister from 1835 to 1852. In 1843 he joined the secession of the Free Church of Scotland. In the years 1852–1868 he held the chair of logic and metaphysics at Queen's College, Belfast, before being appointed president of the College of New Jersey (Princeton) (1868–1888). McCosh is regarded …

Makemie, Francis

(161 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter J.
[German Version] (c. 1658, Ramelton, Ireland – c. July, 1708, Accomack VA). Educated at the University of Glasgow and ordained in Ulster as a Presbyterian, Makemie came to Maryland in 1683 and served as an itinerant evangelist, organizing several churches in the Chesapeake region. In 1699 he received ¶ a license from Virginia to preach as a Dissenter. He was instrumental in the formation of the Presbytery of Philadelphia in 1706, the first American presbytery. Jailed for six weeks in New York for preaching without a license from the Anglican e…

Hodge, Charles

(150 words)

Author(s): Wallace, Peter Jonathan
[German Version] (Dec 27, 1797, Philadelphia – Jun 19, 1878, Princeton) studied at the College of New Jersey and at Princeton Theological Seminary, where he taught from 1822–1878, with a break of two years' study in Halle and Berlin in 1876 to 1878. Hodge defended the traditional Calvinist orthodoxy (Calvinism) within Common Sense philosophy; this offered a way for classical Presbyterians to remain orthodox within the new scientific and democratic world of 19th-century America. As editor of the Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review (1829–1868), in his Systematic Theology (1872/1…
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