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Strauch, Aegidius

(194 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1632, Wittenberg – Feb 13, 1682, Danzig [Gdansk]). After studying in Leipzig and Wittenberg (with A. Calovius), he was appointed professor of philosophy in Wittenberg, receiving his Dr.theol. in 1664. In the Syncretistic Controversy, he vigorously opposed the Helmstedt theologians. In 1669 he was appointed rector of the Gymnasium in Danzig and pastor of Sankt Trinitatis. In 1673 he was removed from office on account of his anti-Catholic sermons; his removal produced an up…

Privacy

(745 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | Kumlehn, Martin
[German Version] I. Ethics The dichotomy of social and cultural reality in public and private spheres is characteristic of the modern life-world, and is the result of modern processes of change in social structure (Modernization). It is true that in the course of functional differentiation (Society: IV; V) essential ingredients of life, for instance work and vocation, are withdrawn from the private sector and transferred to the public one, but at the same time privacy centered on the family is assi…

Knorr von Rosenroth, Christian

(246 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 15, 1636, Alt-Raudten, Silesia – May 4, 1689, near Sulzbach, Upper Palatinate). After studies in Leipzig, Knorr von Rosenroth traveled to the Netherlands and to England. From 1668, he was councilor, and from 1687 chancellery director in Sulzbach. He was the main authority in spiritual matters at the supra-denominational court of Count Christian August von Pfalz-Sulzbach, which attracted scholars and artists. He became friends with F.M. van Helmont, J. Schütz, and the Quaker B…

Labadie, Jean de

(465 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 13, 1610, Bourg, near Bordeaux – Feb 12, 1674, Altona, near Hamburg). Labadie entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1625; in 1639, after theological studies (1636–1639) at Bordeaux and ordination to the priesthood, he obtained permission to leave the Jesuits and become a secular priest. He founded devotional communities in Paris and southern France, for a time showing some attraction to Jansenism. Soon he was struck by the idea of reforming the church after the model of the earlies…

Horb, Johann Heinrich

(199 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jun 11, 1645, Colmar – Jan 26, 1695, Schlems near Hamburg). A disciple of J.K. Dannhauer, Horb initially devoted himself to controversial theology, but became a reform-zealous Pietist under the influence of P.J. Spener, whose sister he married in 1671. Involved in conflicts with Protestant orthodoxy (II, 2) throughout his entire life, Horb was removed from office in Trarbach, where he had officiated as pastor and inspector from 1671 to 1678. From Windsheim in Franconia (superinte…

August, Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel

(185 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Apr 10, 1579, Dannenberg – Sep 17, 1666, Wolfenbüttel). After studying in Rostock, Tübingen, and Strasbourg, and journeying to Italy, France, and England, August led a withdrawn, scholar's life from 1604 to 1634 in Hitzacker, where he collected books and art treasures, and corresponded with, for example, J.V. Andreae. His court preacher Heinrich Varenius lent his …

Müller, Heinrich

(230 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1631, Lübeck – Sep 13, 1675, Rostock), Lutheran author of edifying works. After study in Greifswald and Rostock (under J. Lütkemann), and academic visits to universities in northern and central Germany, in 1653 Müller became archdeacon of St. Mary's Church in Rostock and assistant professor in the philosophical faculty. In 1659 he became profe…

Heunisch, Caspar

(170 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1620, Schweinfurt – Oct 18, 1690, Schweinfurt) studied in Jena and was at first a private tutor in Halle an der Saale. Following his ordination in 1645, he held pastorships in and around Schweinfurt (1647: subdeacon; 1654: deacon; 1660: archdeacon; 1666: superintendent as well as professor and inspecto…

Dannhauer, Johann Konrad

(388 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 24, 1603, Köndringen, Breisgau – Nov 7, 1666, Strasbourg), the most important theologian of Strasbourg's Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century. After studying in Strasbourg, and for one year each in Marburg, Altdorf, and Jena (with J. Gerhard), he became inspector of the seminary in 1628, professor of rhetoric in 1629, profes…

Starck, Johann Friedrich

(183 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1680, Hildesheim – Jul 17, 1756, Frankfurt am Main), Pietist devotional writer. During his studies at Gießen, he was won over to Pietism by J.H. May. After working as a private tutor in Frankfurt am Main, in 1709 he was appointed preacher in Geneva; in 1711 he was appointed pastor in Sachs…

Neumann, Johann Georg

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (May 1, 1661, Mörz, near Belzig – Sep 5, 1709, Wittenberg). Neumann grew up in Zittau, where he studied in the Gymnasium with the influential polyhistor Christian Weise, to whom he remained attached throughout his life. After studies at …

Pritius, Johann Georg

(155 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 22, 1662, Leipzig – Aug 24, 1732, Frankfurt am Main). After studying in Leipzig, Pritius became Saturday preacher at the Nikolaikirche in Leipzig (1690), minister and professor at the Gymnasium in Zerbst (1698), and superintendent in Schleiz (1701). In 1705 he traveled to Holland and England; in 1708 he became pastor at the Marienkirche, Greifswald, an…

Schmidt, Sebastian

(129 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (bapized Jan 6, 1617, Lampertheimin Elsaß [Alsace] – Jan 9, 1696, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). After studying theology in Straßburg, Wittenberg, and elsewhere, and Near Eastern languages in Basel with J. Buxtorf the Younger, he held ecclesiastical and educational appointments in Elsaß and southern Germany. In 1653 he was appointed professor of theology and preacher in Straßburg, where he also served as church president from 1666 until his death. A shy scholar, he was the m…

Veiel, Elias

(156 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes

Zimmermann, Johann Jakob

(219 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1642, Vaihingen an der Enz – summer 1693, Rotterdam) began his studies at Tübingen in 1661, receiving his M.A. in 1664. In 1666 he was appointed lecturer at the Tübingen Stift, and in 1671 he became a deacon in Bietigheim, where he became an adherent of J. Böhme under the influence of L. Brunnquell, a neighboring pastor. He was valued at the Stuttgart court as a mathematician and astronomer; in his

Martini, Jakob

(139 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1570, Langenstein near Halberstadt – May 30, 1649, Wittenberg). Studied in Helmstedt and Wittenberg; 1597, rector in Norden, East Friesland; 1602, professor of logic and metaphysics in Wittenberg; 1613, also of ethics; 1623, professor of theology. Jakob Martini followed C. Martini in the reestablishment of metaphysics, to which he devoted three works. In his

Habermann, Johann

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Avenarius; Oct 8, 1516, Cheb [Ger. Eder], Czech Republic – Dec 5, 1590, Zeitz), who became a Lutheran between 1540 and 1542, served as pastor in several towns of Electoral Saxony (1564–1571 Falkenau, near Cheb). He was briefly a professor of theology (1571 Jena, 1576 Wittenberg); from 1576 to his death, he served as superintendent of the

Mayer, Johann Friedrich

(239 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1650, Leipzig – Mar 30, 1712, Stettin). After his studies in Leipzig and Strasbourg, he became Saturday preacher in Leipzig in 1672, superintendent in Leisnig in 1673, superintendent in Grimma in 1678, and fourth professor of theology in Wittenberg in 1684. From 1686, he was ¶ principal pastor at St. Jakobi in Hamburg, and at the same time professor in Kiel; in 1701, he was appointed professor in Greifswald and Swedish general superinten…

Löscher, Valentin Ernst

(412 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 29, 1673, Sondershausen – Feb 12, 1749, Dresden). As the son of the Wittenberg professor of theology Caspar Löscher (1636–1718), Valentin Löscher also studied in Wittenberg. After a study tour (extending as far as Holland and Denmark), he received a master's degree and became an adjunct to the faculty of philosophy in 1692. He …

Großgebauer, Theophil

(189 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 24, 1627, Ilmenau – Jul 8, 1661, Rostock). After studying in Rostock (M.A. in 1650) Großgebauer was deacon of St. Jacobi in Rostock from 1653 onward. Imbued with the reform zeal of the Rostock orthodoxy (II, 2) and influenced by the edifying literature of England, he fought against unbelief ( Praeservativ wider die Pest der heutigen Atheisten, 1661), lamented the futility of many sermons, and devised a radical church reform agenda in his Wächterstimme aus dem verwüsteten Zion (1661). His proposals: precedence of the pastoral ministry over the preaching…
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