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Prayer

(13,283 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Reventlow, Henning Graf | Gebauer, Roland | Förster, Niclas | Wallmann, Johannes | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Prayer is one of the most frequent and important religious acts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It also appears in other religions – for example the indigenous religions of America. But it does not appear to be universal. Some Buddhist traditions, for example, are atheistic, and in them there is no prayer in the strict sense; these traditions often allow their adherents to pray to gods (e.g. Hindu gods), but they value the goals of such prayer less than enl…

Gerhard, Johann

(428 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 17, 1582, Quedlinburg – Aug 17, 1637, Jena) was the most important theologian of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). Comforted spiritually in a youthful illness by his “spiritual father” Johann Arndt, the very talented Gerhard initially studied medicine at Wittenberg, then theology at Jena, Marburg (with B. [I.] Mentzer) and again in Jena. After earning his doctorate in theology (1606), he was retained for church offices (1606 superintendent in Heldburg, 1615 general superintendent…

Molanus, Gerard Walter

(200 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 22, 1633, Hamelin – Sep 17, 1722, Hanover). After studying in Helmstedt (under G. Calixtus), Rinteln, and Strasbourg, in 1659 Molanus was appointed professor of mathematics, and in 1664 also of theology, in Rinteln. In 1671, he became a conventual in Loccum Abbey, in 1674 church director of the duchy of Calenberg (Hanover), and in 1677 abbot of Loccum. Though unimportant as a theologian, Molanus, as leader and organizer of a constantly increasing church territory ( inter alia union with Lüneburg 1705), can be considered the father of the Hanover region…

Concord, Formula of

(1,247 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] The Formula of Concord ( Formula Concordiae) of 1577 is the result of the trans-regional settlement effort conducted in protracted, tedious negotiations intended to provide a common doctrinal basis for the Lutheran state churches that had splintered through doctrinal disputes after Luther's death and had separated into various doctrinal traditions – notably that of the Philippists (adherents of Melanchthon) and the Gnesio-Lutherans. Through its inclusion in t…

Scriver, Christian

(282 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jan 2, 1629, Rendsburg – Apr 5, 1693, Quedlinburg), was a classic author of Lutheran devotional literature; like J. Arndt, he urged internalization of Christianity, but he was more focused than Arndt on Luther and his doctrine of justification; he ¶ was a brilliant stylist of immense erudition, drawing on secular sources for his writings. After studying in Rostock (with J. Lütkemann), in 1653 he was appointed archdeacon in Stendal; in 1667 he was appointed pastor of Sankt Jacobi in Magdeburg, where he served for 23 year…

Neumeister, Erdmann

(202 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (May 12, 1671, Uichteritz near Weißenfels – Aug 18, 1756, Hamburg), one of the last spokesmen for late Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). Neumeister began his theological studies in Leipzig with V. Alberti in 1689. After a brief period of teaching, he held various ecclesiastical offices, beginning in ¶ 1697. In 1704 he was appointed senior court chaplain, consistorial counselor, and superintendent in Sorau. In 1715 he became senior pastor of Sankt Jacobi in Hamburg. Neumeister flirted with Pietism as a student, but his ideas change…

Kuhlmann, Quirinus

(230 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1651, Wrocław [Breslau], Poland – Oct 4, 1689, Moscow), a chiliastic mystic. While still a student of jurisprudence in Jena, Kuhlmann came under the influence of the Lutheran mysticism of H. Müller and published a collection of poems entitled Himmlische Liebesküsse ([Heavenly love-kisses] 1671, repr. 1971). In the Netherlands, he underwent a process of transformation between 1674 and 1678, influenced by the writings of J. Böhme and the eschatological expectations of Johannes Rothe, which caused him to become a church-critical millennialist ( Neubegeister…

Misler, Johann Nikolaus

(142 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (1614, Münzenberg – Feb 20, 1683, Giessen). After studying in Marburg, he taught at the Pädagogium and was Archidiakonus there. In 1652, he became professor of Hebrew and theology in Giessen; in 1654, director of the institute for stipend recipients; in 1654, doctor of theology; in 1656, superintendent; in 1676, professor primarius. Misler wrote, in addition to numerous disputations, dogmatic ( Orthodoxia iuxta seriem articulorum Formulae Concordiae, 1669) and controversial writings ( Speculum Anti-Jesuiticum, 1660), as well as sermons. Twice (1653 and…

Fischer, Johann

(238 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 13, 1636, Lübeck – May 17, 1705, Magdeburg). After studying in Rostock and Altdorf, Fischer became a candidate for pastoral office in Stade, where he came into conflict with Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a) after translating Puritanical literature (R. Baxter). In 1667–73 he was superintendent in Sulzbach/Upper Palatinate. In 1673 Charles XI appointed him superintendent in Riga; after becoming general superintendent of Livonia in 1678, Fischer, who was friends with P.J. Spener and…

Schütz, Johann Jakob

(204 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 7, 1640, Frankfurt am Main – May 21, 1690, Frankfurt), founder of separatist Lutheran Pietism. After studying at Jena and Tübingen, he began to practice law in Frankfurt am Main. Schütz ascribed his awakening to reading the sermons of J. Tauler. He inspired P.J. Spener to establish the Collegium pietatis in Frankfurt, in which he played a leading role for years, until he finally separated from the unreformable “Babel” of the Lutheran state church and championed an “impartial”…

Schudt, Johann Jacob

(113 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1664, Frankfurt am Main – Feb 14, 1722, Frankfurt). After studying philosophy and theology in Wittenberg (1680–1684), Schudt did five years of special Near Eastern studies in Hamburg with E. Edzard. Returning to Frankfurt in 1689, he began to teach at the Gymnasium in 1691; in 1695 he became deputy rector and in 1717 rector. He was considered the outstanding expert of his time on Judaism; his many publications dealt primarily with Hebrew philology, the history of Judaism, and the Jewish way of life ( Jüdische Merkwürdigkeiten, 1714–1717). Johannes Wallmann Bibli…

Winckelmann

(388 words)

Author(s): Wriedt, Markus | Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] 1. Johannes (1551, Homberg – Aug 13, 1626, Gießen), Protestant theologian. Although trained as a blacksmith, he began studying at Marburg in 1568. In 1573 he became head of the municipal school in Homberg/Efze. In 1576 he continued his studies at Marburg. In 1582 he was appointed court chaplain in Kassel and in 1592 professor at Marburg as well as preacher at the Marienkirche. He was removed from his position in 1607 and went to Gießen, where he was co-founder of the Pedagogium and the university. In 1607 he was appointed full professor and in 1610 superintendent. In ¶ the cont…

Lampe, Friedrich Adolf

(283 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 18, 1683, Detmold – Dec 8, 1729, Bremen) was the most influential German Reformed theologian of the 18th century. Educated at the academic Gymnasium in Bremen under C. de Hase in the spirit of Reformed Precisism (G. Voetius), Lampe completed his theological studies in Franeker under C. Vitringa, who acquainted him with the chiliastically transformed covenant theology of J. Cocceius. In 1703, he became preacher in Weeze ¶ near Kleve, in 1706 parish priest in Duisburg, and from 1709 parish priest at St. Stephani in Bremen. In 1720, he became pro…

Veiel, Elias

(156 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 20, 1635, Ulm – Feb 23, 1706, Ulm). After studying in Straßburg (Strasbourg) and the Saxon universities, he was appointed preacher at the Ulm Minster in 1662 and professor of theology at the Ulm Gymnasium in 1663. In 1664 he received his Dr.theol. in Straßburg with a disputation against chiliasm under J.K. Dannhauer. In 1671 he was appointed director of the Gymnasium in Ulm and in 1678 superintendent in Ulm. He published numerous volumes of sermons and theological works. In 1…

Zimmermann, Johann Jakob

(219 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1642, Vaihingen an der Enz – summer 1693, Rotterdam) began his studies at Tübingen in 1661, receiving his M.A. in 1664. In 1666 he was appointed lecturer at the Tübingen Stift, and in 1671 he became a deacon in Bietigheim, where he became an adherent of J. Böhme under the influence of L. Brunnquell, a neighboring pastor. He was valued at the Stuttgart court as a mathematician and astronomer; in his Cometo-Scopia (1681) he prophesied the rapidly approaching end of the world and the coming of the millennial kingdom. Suspended from office in 1686…

Martini, Jakob

(139 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1570, Langenstein near Halberstadt – May 30, 1649, Wittenberg). Studied in Helmstedt and Wittenberg; 1597, rector in Norden, East Friesland; 1602, professor of logic and metaphysics in Wittenberg; 1613, also of ethics; 1623, professor of theology. Jakob Martini followed C. Martini in the reestablishment of metaphysics, to which he devoted three works. In his Vernunft-Spiegel (1619; Mirror of reason), one of the first philosophical works in the German language, he combatted Ramist and anti- philosophical tendencies in Lutherani…

Habermann, Johann

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Avenarius; Oct 8, 1516, Cheb [Ger. Eder], Czech Republic – Dec 5, 1590, Zeitz), who became a Lutheran between 1540 and 1542, served as pastor in several towns of Electoral Saxony (1564–1571 Falkenau, near Cheb). He was briefly a professor of theology (1571 Jena, 1576 Wittenberg); from 1576 to his death, he served as superintendent of the Stift in Zeitz. Known to his contemporaries as a Hebraist (Hebrew grammar 1571, Hebrew dictionary 1588), ¶ he was remembered by later generations as the author of a Lutheran prayer book equal in popularity to the Paradiesgärtlein of Joha…

Mayer, Johann Friedrich

(239 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1650, Leipzig – Mar 30, 1712, Stettin). After his studies in Leipzig and Strasbourg, he became Saturday preacher in Leipzig in 1672, superintendent in Leisnig in 1673, superintendent in Grimma in 1678, and fourth professor of theology in Wittenberg in 1684. From 1686, he was ¶ principal pastor at St. Jakobi in Hamburg, and at the same time professor in Kiel; in 1701, he was appointed professor in Greifswald and Swedish general superintendent of Western Pomerania. Even if posterity remembers him only as the “hammerer of heretics and pietists” ( malleus haereticoru…

Samson

(108 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Samson,  Hermann (4.3.1579 Riga – 16.12.1643 ebd.), nach Studium in Wittenberg (bei L. Hütter) und Rostock seit 1608 Prediger an St. Petri in Riga, dazu Inspektor der Schulen, später Domprediger. S. bekämpfte literarisch die jesuitische Gegenreformation (Baltische Länder: III.,1., b). Von König Gustav II. Adolf bei der schwedischen Eroberung 1622 zum Superintendenten über Livland bestellt, mühte sich S. um die Wiederherstellung des luth. Kirchen- und Schulwesens, baute das Gymnasi…

Sandhagen

(122 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[English Version] Sandhagen, Caspar Hermann (22.10.1639 Borgholzhausen bei Bielefeld – 14.7.1697 Kiel), nach Studium in Rostock und Straßburg 1665 Hilfsprediger, 1667 Rektor in Bielefeld, zeitweilig in enger Verbindung mit den Labadisten (J.de  Labadie) im nahen Herford, 1672 Superintendent in Lüneburg. Seit 1689 war S. Generalsuperintendent in Schleswig-Holstein und Oberhofprediger in Gottorf. Als gründlicher Exeget gab er die Bibelkomm. seines Lehrers S. Schmidt heraus. Studienaufenthalte bei ihm …
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