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Julius Africanus

(694 words)

Author(s): Wallraff, Martin
[Sextus] 3rd century. Palestine, Italy. Julius Africanus, the "father of Christian chronography" (Gelzer), is the author of the first Christian world chronicle, originally written in Greek. The tradition according to which he bore the praenomen Sextus is late and unreliable ( Suda A4647). Little is known about his biography. He originated from Palestine (probably Aelia Capitolina, i.e. Jerusalem, cest. 5,51), spent some time at the court of king Abgar VIII of Osrhoene in Edessa, and later lived in Rome ( cest. 5,53f.). Various journeys in the Eastern part of the Roman Empir…
Date: 2021-04-15


(258 words)

Author(s): Wallraff, Martin
[German Version] (c. 368 – after 425), church historian in Constantinople. A native of Borissus, in Cappadocia, Philostorgius grew up in a staunchly Anomoean family (Neo-Arianism; Hist. eccl. IX 9). In his youth, he met Eunomius, the intellectual leader of the Anomoeans, ¶ and became a totally committed supporter (X 6). This perspective also informs his church history, probably written between 425 and 433 in Constantinople. It begins with the time of Constantine, thus being a continuation of the church history of Eusebius of Caesarea, al…

Malalas, John

(90 words)

Author(s): Wallraff, Martin
[German Version] (surname from Syr. malel, “speak”; Antioch, 6th cent.), rhetor. His universal chronicle (Chronicles: I), with clearly monophysite tendencies (at least in its first portion), presents in 18 books the history of the world from Adam to the death of Justinian I in 565 (possibly continued to 574). Written for popular instruction and entertainment, both its language and content significantly influenced later Byzantine literature. Martin Wallraff Bibliography CPG 3, 7511 J. Thurn, ed., Ioannis Malalae Chronographia, 2000 E. Jeffreys et al., eds., Studies in John Mala…

Philip of Side

(299 words)

Author(s): Wallraff, Martin
[German Version] (c. 380 – after 431), compatriot and relative of the rhetor Troilos from the Pamphylian seaport of Side. Under John Chrysostom, Philip was a deacon in Constantinople, and later probably also presbyter and synkellos (i.e. senior priest close to the patriarch); certainly, a decided supporter of the controversial bishop (probable addressee of Chrysostom’s epistola 213). Later he applied several times, unsuccessfully, to succeed Chrysostom (when Sisinnius was elected in 426, Nestorius in 428, and Maximianus in 431; main source, Socr. Hist. eccl. VII 26f.). His lit…


(383 words)

Author(s): Wallraff, Martin
[German Version] I. Novatian (died c. 258). In the 3rd century, Novatian was second only to Hippolytus as an intellectual and theological leader of the Roman church. This was clear after Bishop Fabian was martyred in the Decian persecution (Decius; Persecutions of Christians: I). During the interim before election of a successor, agreement had to be reached with Carthage about receiving apostates back into the church; Novatian conducted the correspondence (preserved in the letters of Cyprian of Carthage: Ep. 30, 36, and partially 31). His hopes to succeed the martyred bis…

Rome, The Idea of

(904 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert | Wallraff, Martin | Schimmelpfennig, Bernhard
[German Version] I. Greco-Roman Antiquity 1. The picture (imaginaire, myth, idea) that the Romans developed of themselves, their city, and their rule (Imperium Romanum) has an exemplary early period, with its founders – “pious father Aeneas” (Virgil, Aen.), Romulus, and Numa, founder of the city and founder of religion (Livy, Book I); its type – “the good old Roman” in a toga, beardless (Cicero, Cato maior), and its distinctions from its rivals in Greece (Athens). Might and right are contrasted with learning, art, and philosophy: excudent alii... / tu regere imperio populos, Romane; “o…


(11,156 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Cancik, Hubert | Veltri, Giuseppe | Wallraff, Martin | Schimmelpfennig, Bernhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. History and Archaeology 1. History and archaeology. On a favorable site, on the road from Etruria to Latium and Campania, at a ford over the Tiber about 30 km from its mouth, and also on the road from the coast going in the direction of the Apennines, and in fertile lands by the river, there were small settlements from at least the 14th century bce (esp. on the Capitol). According to legend, Rome was then founded in 753 bce by Romulus, who became its first king. Other legends make Aeneas, son of Anchises ¶ and Aphrodite, the most important Trojan hero after Hector, into …


(2,816 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Cancik, Hubert | Schroer, Silvia | Wallraff, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The sun is omnipresent; in the phenomenal world, it marks and accentuates the course of our chronological and spatial lifeworld. The range of associated structures, interpretations, and ambivalences (light and dark, life-giving and life-consuming) makes it only natural that the sun should acquire religious symbolisms and orientations in many ways and in many areas: (1) orientation in time (annual calendrical cycle, identification of sacral seasons and hours of th…


(9,806 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Franciscus A.M. | Wiggermann, F.A.M. | Betz, Hans Dieter | Baudy, Dorothea | Joosten, Jan | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Antiquity – III. Bible – IV. Church History – V. Practical Theology – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. Religious Studies No definition of magic has as yet found general acceptance. Approaches that go back to the late 19th century (E.B. Tylor, J.G. Frazer) view magic as a primitive cognitive system, the lowest rung on an evolutionary ladder (Evolution) that progresses with religion and science (cf. also Myth/Mythology: I). Magic in this view is charact…


(22,186 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Avemarie, Friedrich | Wallraff, Martin | Grethlein, Christian | Koch, Günter | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology – VI. History of Liturgy – VII. Law – VIII. Missions – IX. Art I. History of Religion From the standpoint of the history of religion, baptism is not a general type of rite (Rite and ritual) but a lustration ritual that is carried out not only in Christianity but also in historically related religions such as …