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Marquardt, Karl Joachim

(361 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
German ancient historian. Born Danzig 19. 4. 1812, died Gotha 30. 11. 1882. After school at Danzig, studied classical philology, Protestant theology, philosophy and Germanic studies at Berlin from 1830, then at Leipzig 1831/32. Assistant teacher at Friedrich-Wilhelm Gymnasium zu Berlin 1834; from 1836 teacher at Danzig Gymnasium. Doctorate Königsberg 1840; 1856 rector of the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Gymnasium in Posen; 1859 rector of the Ernestinum at Gotha. M. was also director of collections at Friedenstein Castle (Gotha) from 1862. Work and influence M.’s father was a Kommerz- und …

Strasburger, Hermann

(647 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
German ancient historian. Born Bonn 21. 6. 1909, died Freiburg 4. 4. 1985. Son of a prof. of internal medicine and grandson of a renowned botanist. Studied history and classical philology at Frankfurt, Innsbruck and Munich. Doctorate 1931 with Matthias Gelzer at Frankfurt. 1932–1934 teaching in Freiburg. Academic career then cancelled: Mischling 2. Grades (‘Mixed blood, 2nd degree’), but S. would “not so easily relinquish intellectual citizenship [ geistiges Bürgerrecht] of Germany” (letter to Helmut Berve, 20. 8. 1934). Invalided out of World War II. 1946 habil.…

Hohl, Ernst

(440 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
German ancient historian and classical philologist. Born Stuttgart 18. 4. 1886, died Berlin 24. 2. 1957. After attending the Karlsgymnasium at Stuttgart and serving in the military, studied classical philology and historical science 1905–1910 at Tübingen, Munich and Berlin. 1910/11 student teacher. 1911 doctorate at Tübingen with a thesis on the Historia Augusta. 1912/13 study trip; 1914 habil. at Strasbourg. 1919 prof. ext. of ancient history at Rostock; 1929 prof. ord., 1930/31 and 1946–1948 dean there. 1950 prof. ord. at the Humboldt Univ. in Berlin. Retired 1953. Member of the St…

Grant, Michael

(503 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
British ancient historian. Born 21. 11. 1914, died 4. 10. 2004. School at Harrow; Studies (classics) and research fellowship at Trinity College, Cambridge. 1939 War Office. 1940–1945 worked for British Council in Ankara. Diss., Cambridge, on Imperial numismatics (published 1946). 1948 prof. of Latin studies at Edinburgh; 1956 Vice-Chancellor of the Univ. of Khartoum (Sudan); 1959 Vice-Chancellor of Queen’s Univ., Belfast; from 1966, freelance author in Gattaiola (Tuscany). Works G. acquired a reputation as a historian with a speciality in numismatics. From an ear…

Grant, Michael

(518 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
Engl. Althistoriker. Geb. am 21. 11. 1914, gest. am 4. 10. 2004. Schulbesuch in Harrow; Studium ( Classics) und Research Fellowship in Cambridge am Trinity College. 1939 im War Office. 1940–1945 für das British Council in Ankara tätig; Diss. Cambridge zur kaiserzeitlichen Numismatik (gedruckt 1946). 1948 Prof. für Latinistik in Edinburgh; 1956 Vice-Chancellor der Univ. of Khartoum (Sudan); 1959 Vice-Chancellor der Queen’s Univ. in Belfast; seit 1966 freiberuflicher Autor in Gattaiola (Toskana). Werk G. erwarb sich einen Ruf als numismatisch arbeitender Historiker…

Hohl, Ernst

(399 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
Dt. Althistoriker und Klass. Philologe. Geb. am 18. 4. 1886 in Stuttgart, gest. am 24. 2. 1957 in Berlin. Nach Besuch des Stuttgarter Karlsgymnasiums und Militärdienst 1905–1910 Studium der Klass. Philologie und Geschichtswiss. in Tübingen, München und Berlin; 1910/11 Studienreferendar; 1911 Prom. in Tübingen mit einer Arbeit zur Historia Augusta. 1912/13 Studienreise; 1914 Habil. in Straßburg. 1919 ao.Prof. für Alte Gesch. in Rostock; 1929 o.Prof., 1930/31 und 1946–1948 Dekan ebda.; 1950 o.Prof. an der Humboldt Univ. Berlin; 1953 emeritie…

Marquardt, Karl Joachim

(319 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
Dt. Althistoriker. Geb. am 19. 4. 1812 in Danzig, gest. am 30. 11. 1882 in Gotha. Nach Besuch des Danziger Gymnasiums seit 1830 Studium der Klass. Philologie, evang. Theologie, Philosophie und Germanistik in Berlin, 1831/32 in Leipzig. Ab 1834 Hilfslehrer am Friedrich-Wilhelm Gymnasium zu Berlin; ab 1836 Lehrer am Gymnasium in Danzig. Prom. 1840 in Königsberg; 1856 Leiter des Friedrich-Wilhelm-Gymnasiums in Posen; 1859 Leiter des Gymnasiums Ernestinum in Gotha. Seit 1862 wirkte M. zudem als Direktor der Sammlungen im Schloss Friedenstein (Gotha). Werk und Wirkung M.s Vater w…

Strasburger, Hermann

(610 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
Dt. Althistoriker. Geb. am 21. 6. 1909 in Bonn, gest. am 4. 4. 1985 in Freiburg i. Br. Sohn eines Prof. für Innere Medizin und Enkel eines bekannten Botanikers; Studium von Gesch. und Klass. Phil. in Frankfurt a. M., Innsbruck und München; Prom. 1931 bei Matthias Gelzer in Frankfurt. 1932–1934 Lehrauftrag in Freiburg i. Br. Danach Ende der akad. Laufbahn für S. als »Mischling 2. Grades«, der aber den Anspruch »auf ein geistiges Bürgerrecht in Deutschland nicht so leicht preis[gab]« (Brief an Hel…

Taurosthenes

(74 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
[English version] (Ταυροσθένης) aus Chalkis, Sohn des Mnesarchos, unterstützte seinen Bruder Kallias [9] bei dessen Versuch einer unabhängigen euboischen Machtpolitik zw. 349 und 338 v. Chr. Sein Einschwenken auf die Linie Athens auf Betreiben von Demosthenes [2] wurde mit dem athen. Bürgerrecht belohnt. Nach der Schlacht bei Chaironeia (338) lebte T. in Athen. Hauptquellen: Aischin. 3,85-87 mit schol.; Deinarch. 1,44. Walter, Uwe Bibliography PA 13435  I. Worthington, A Historical Commentary on Dinarchus, 1992, 207-209 (Lit.).

Skironides

(84 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
[English version] (Σκιρωνίδης). Athener, führte als Stratege zusammen mit Phrynichos [2] und anderen im Sommer 412 v. Chr. die Offensive zur Rückeroberung von Miletos [2], die trotz siegreicher Feldschlacht wegen der spartan. Flottenübermacht - gegen das Votum u. a. des S. - abgebrochen wurde (Thuk. 8,25-27). Als Befehlshaber der Flotte bei Samos wurden er und Phrynichos Anf. 411 abgesetzt (Thuk. 8,54,3). Seine Einstellung zur Oligarchie der Vierhundert ( tetrakósioi ) ist unklar. Walter, Uwe Bibliography D. Kagan, The Fall of the Athenian Empire, 1987  PA 12730.

Statussymbole

(956 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe
[English version] I. Status: Begriff und Probleme Status (= St.) bezeichnet die soziale Position einer Person; im engeren Sinn sind damit eindeutige rechtliche Qualitäten gemeint, die etwa mit der Zugehörigkeit zu der Bürgerschaft einer Stadt, zu einem Stand ( ordo II., vgl. status [2]) oder zu den Gruppen der Freien, Freigelassenen oder Sklaven verbunden waren. Ferner bestimmen auch objektivierbare Distinktionskriterien wie Amtsrang oder Lebensalter den St. Weiter gefaßt und auf die Ges. bezogen meint St. den erreichten Grad sozialer Prominenz. Wichtige St.-Merkmale in an…

Phormisios

(192 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Köln)
[English version] (Φορμίσιος). Athener, kehrte nach Flucht vor dem Oligarchenregime ( triákonta ) 403 v.Chr. mit Thrasybulos und den Demokraten vom Piräus zurück. Sein Antrag auf Rückkehr der Geflohenen in Eleusis und Beschränkung des Bürgerrechts auf die Haus- und Grundbesitzer gemäß dem Willen Spartas (Dion. Hal. Lysias 32,2) kann als Kompromiß zwischen der restaurierten Demokratie und oligarchischen Vorstellungen auf der Basis der Amnestie und mit dem Ziel einer außenpolit. abgesichert…

Status symbols

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] I. Status: concept and issues Status denotes the social position of an individual. In the narrower sense, it implies clear legal qualities, e.g. connected with membership of the citizenry of a city, a social order ( ordo II, cf. status [2]) or the groups of free-men, freedmen or slaves. Objectifiable criteria of distinction, such as official rank or age, also determine status. More broadly, and with reference to society, status refers to the degree of social prominence attained. Important status symbols in ancient history were origin, wealth, education, ran…

Phormisius

(216 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] (Φορμίσιος/ Phormísios). Athenian, returned from Piraeus in 403 BC with Thrasybulus and the democrats after he had fled the oligarchical regime ( triákonta ). His motion on the return of the refugees in Eleusis and limitation of citizenship rights to house and land owners in accordance with the will of Sparta (Dion. Hal. Lysias 32,2) can be seen as a compromise between the restored democracy and oligarchic ideas on the basis of the amnesty and with the goal of a reconciliation support…

Taurosthenes

(77 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] (Ταυροσθένης; Taurosthénēs) from Chalcis, son of Mnesarchus, supported his brother Callias [9] in an attempt at independent Euboean power politics between 349 and 338 BC. When he joined the Athenian position on Demosthenes' [2] instigation, he was given Athenian citizenship. After the battle of Chaeronea (in 338) T. lived in Athens. Main sources: Aeschin. 3,85-87 with schol.; Din. 1,44. Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography PA 13435  I. Worthington, A Historical Commentary on Dinarchus, 1992, 207-209 (Lit.).

Infrastructure

(1,876 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] I. General The modern term infrastructure refers to the structures and arrangements which create the material prerequisites for the social processes of production and exchange. This definition, under which for antiquity the systems of transport and communications infrastructure (roads, bridges, harbours) can be subsumed, emphasizes the economic function of infrastructure. It goes without saying that infrastructure also served military purposes. It is also meaningful to regard as inf…

Pentekontaetia

(600 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] (πεντηκονταετία; pentēkontaetía). In its narrower sense, the pentekontaetia is Thucydides' chronologically imprecise summary (Thuc. 1,89-117), which was probably inserted late [6. 195], of the period of almost fifty years from 479 to 431 BC (in fact only until 439 BC), centring on the thesis of the rise of Athenian power and Sparta's increasing fear of it. In modern scholarship, the term is used in a wider sense to refer to the history of this period in general. The Greek word does not co…

Periods, division into

(2,403 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] I. Terminology The division into periods, or periodization, imbues large segments of history with meaning relative to the uniform progress of time, so that they form a unit (period, epoch, age) with regard to a selected aspect. Individual events thereby obtain the rank of turning points or caesuras. As the determination of qualitative differences in the course of time, periodization, considered from the viewpoint of a theory of history, is – like historical reconstruction itself - t…

Scironides

(107 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] (Σκιρωνίδης; Skirōnídēs). Athenian who, as strategos, together with Phrynichus [2] and others led an offensive to reconquer Miletus [2] in the summer of 412 BC. In spite of victory in the land battle, the offensive was broken off - contrary to the votes of S. i.a. - because of the superiority of the Spartan fleet (Thuc. 8,25-27). As commanders of the fleet at Samos, he and Phrynichus were dismissed at the beginning of 411 (Thuc. 8,54,3). His attitude to the oligarchy of the Four Hundred ( Tetrakósioi ) is unclear. Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography D. Kagan, The Fall of th…

Phryne

(414 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne)
[German version] (Φρύνη; Phrýnē). Born before 371 BC in Thespiae, best known hetaera of the 4th cent. BC, celebrated for her quick wit (Ath. 13,585e-f) and the natural beauty of her face (Gal. protrepticus 10); she was quite reticent in showing off her body [2. 157f.]. The numerous anecdotes about her come partly from the biographical tradition regarding her prominent lovers Hypereides and Praxiteles; there was also a piece of writing (or a speech) by Aristogeiton about her specifically (all source…
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