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Mackay, Alexander Murdoch

(172 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Oct 13, 1849, Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland – Feb 8, 1890, Usambiro [today Tanzania]), pioneer of the Anglican Church Missionary Society in Uganda and son of a minister of the Free Church of Scotland. Mackay studied engineering in Edinburgh and in November 1879 came to the court of the king of Buganda. He was admired by the Baganda because of his technical skills and his lively defense of his faith, especially in arguments with Muslims and Catholic missionaries. Mackay's efforts ¶ contributed to the establishment of a strong Protestant community in Uganda,…

Livingstonia

(274 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] is a mission station of the Free Church of Scotland, established by James Stewart, from Lovedale in South Africa, along the northern shores of Lake Nyasa in what was to become the British colony of Nyasaland, present day Malawi. The mission station was named after David Livingstone, who had died in 1873 and whom Stewart had accompanied on his Zambezi expedition. Xhosa evangelists from Lovedale accompanied Stewart on his mission expeditions. From 1878 to 1927 Robert Laws was the le…

Balokole

(401 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] The Balokole fellowship is a movement of revival and spiritual renewal within the Protestant churches of East Africa. Beginning in the Anglican church of Uganda, it soon began to exert influence on many denominations within East Africa. “Balokole” means “Saved People” in Luganda. The Balokole fellowship shares many characteristics of Western e…

Quaque, Philip

(257 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (1741, Cape Coast, Ghana – Oct 17, 1816, Cape Coast), the first African Anglican priest. In 1754 Thomas Thompson, the first missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) and chaplain of the British (slave) trading “factory” The Castle, arranged for the young Quaque to go to England to receive a British education. There he was baptized in 1759 and ordained as a priest in 1765. After his return to his native land in 1766, he became successor to T…

Le Zoute Conference

(265 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Le Zoute, in Belgium, was the forum for one of the most important international mission conferences of the inter-war period. Its theme ¶ was “Christian mission in Africa,” with particular reference to evangelism, education, and race relations. Its architect was J. Oldham, secretary of the International Missionary Council (the successor to the 1910 Edinburgh Conference). Oldham was concerned that missions should respond to new social and political currents in Africa: “The whole work of the Conference was…

Kenya

(762 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Kenya, state in East Africa, on the Indian Ocean, with a surface area of 582,650 km2. 70% of the country is threatened by drought, while the coastal and upland areas are watered by the southeastern monsoons and relief rainfall. The population (approx. 30 million) is composed of members of the following ethnic groups: Kikuyu (22%), Luhya (14%), Luo (13%), Kalenyin (12%), Kamba (11%), Kisii (6%), Meru (6%), other African groups (15%) and non-Africans (Asiatics, Europeans, Arabs, 1%). About 26% of the inhabitants are ¶ adherents of traditional religion, 7% are Musli…

United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel

(279 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (USPG). The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) was established by T. Bray as the first missionary society of the Church of England. In 1965 SPG united with the Universities’ Mission to Central Africa (UMCA, founded in 1857 in response to the appeal of D. Livingstone) to form USPG, which represents the catholic wing of the Anglican Church. The original aims of SPG were to supply clergy to minister to British settlers and to engage in mission work among the indigenous p…

Uganda

(722 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Uganda, Binnenland im großen Seengebiet Ostafrikas (s.  Afrika, Karte). Die Mehrheit der auf 22 Mio. geschätzten Bevölkerung besteht aus Bantu sprechenden Ethnien, doch es gibt wichtige nilotische (Nuer/Dinka) und sudanesische (Sudan) Völker im Norden. Hauptagrarprodukte für den Eigenbedarf sind Bananen und Hirse; Baumwolle und Kaffee sind Verkaufsgüter. Kulturell wie wirtschaftlich von Bedeutung ist die Viehzucht. U. ist nach dem Königreich von Buganda benannt, das den Mittelteil der späteren brit. Kolonie einnahm. Seit den 40er Ja…

Scott

(266 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Scott, Michael (30.7.1907 Lowfield Heath, Sussex – 14.9.1983 London), anglik. Priester und Kämpfer gegen die Apartheid im südlichen Afrika. S. kam 1926 zum ersten Mal nach Südafrika, um sich von einer Tuberkulose zu erholen. Er besuchte das theol. College in Grahamstown, wurde aber 1930 durch Bf. G. Bell von Chichester ordiniert. Sein folgendes Amt als Kurat in London vermittelte ihm ein radikal-sozialistisches polit. Bewußtsein. Von 1937–1939 arbeitete er in Indien. 1940 trat er …

Paton

(277 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Paton, Alan Stewart (11.1.1903 Pietermaritzburg, Natal, Südafrika – 12.4.1988 Hillcrest, KwaZulu/Natal), christl. Schriftsteller und polit. Aktivist. Als Nachkomme schottischer und engl. Vorfahren konvertierte P. schon in jungen Jahren zum anglik. Christentum, das von da an seine polit. und ethische Weltsicht prägte. 1936 wurde er Direktor von Diepkloof Reformatory, einer Erziehungseinrichtung für jugendliche Straftäter. Die Erfahrung bei der Rehabilitierung schwarzer Jugendlicher…

Quaque

(251 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Quaque, Philip (1741 Cape Coast, Ghana – 17.10.1816 ebd.), erster afrikanischer Anglikanerpriester. 1754 ermöglichte Thomas Thompson, erster Missionar der Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) und Geistlicher der brit. (Sklaven-)Handelsgesellschaft The Castle, dem jungen Sohn eines Häuptlings die Reise nach England, damit er dort eine Ausbildung erhielt. Dort wurde er 1759 getauft und 1765 zum Priester ordiniert. Nach der Rückkehr in sein Heimatland (176…

Ruanda

(566 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] (Rwanda), Binnenstaat in Ostafrika, mit 7,8 Mio. Einwohnern (Stand 2003) auf 26 338 km 2 äußerst dicht besiedelt; Hauptstadt ist Kigali. R. ist eines der wenigen modernen Länder Afrikas, in dem die überwiegende Mehrheit der Bevölkerung einer einzigen ethnischen und kulturellen Gruppe angehört. Das vorkoloniale R. war eine vielschichtige Gesellschaft, die in drei Hauptgruppen geteilt war: Das Hirtenvolk der Tutsi, die bäuerlichen Hutu und das Jägervolk der Twa. Die Hutu bildeten die Mehrhei…

United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel

(277 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] (USPG). Die Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) wurde von Th. Bray als erste Missionsgesellschaft der Church of England gegründet. 1965 vereinigte sie sich mit der Universities' Mission to Central Africa (UMCA, auf Anregung von D. Livingstone 1857 gegründet) zur USPG, die den kath. Flügel der anglik. Kirche repräsentiert. Die urspr. Ziele der SPG waren die Bereitstellung Geistlicher zur Betreuung brit. Siedler und die Missionsarbeit bei der einheimischen Bevölkerung u…

Rebmann

(180 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Rebmann, Johannes (16.1.1820 Gerlingen – 4.10.1876 Korntal), ausgebildet an der Basler Mission, wurde 1846 von der Church Missionary Society (CMS) anglik. ordiniert und nach Ostafrika entsandt. Mit J.L. Krapf lebte er in Rabai unter den Mijikenda, im Hinterland Mombasas (Kenia), darauf hoffend, daß sich dieses Volk für das Evangelium empfänglicher zeigen würde als die Suaheli sprechende musl. Bevölkerung an der Küste. R. kam wie Krapf aus pietistischer Tradition. Er leitete eine R…

Sierra Leone

(427 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Sierra Leone, Präsidialrepublik in Westafrika (zur Lage s. Afrika, Karte); Hauptstadt ist Freetown; Fläche 71 740 km 2, 5 732 681 Einwohner (Juli 2003). S.L. verdankt seine Existenz als Kolonialstaat den Aktivitäten brit. Evangelikaler und humanitärer Verfechter der Abschaffung der Sklaverei. 1787 überzeugte G. Sharp die brit. Regierung, eine Kolonie für befreite schwarze Sklaven aus Amerika zu unterstützen. Siedler, viele von ihnen Baptisten oder Methodisten, kamen aus der Karibik und Nova Sc…

Kikuyu Conferences

(297 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Missionary activity in Kenya at the end of the 19th century resembled a Christian “scramble for Africa.” To mitigate such unhappy divisions there evolved an annual Protestant mission convention in Kikuyu to deepen the spiritual life and to discuss practical issues. In 1913 the idea of a “federation” of missions emerged, working towards a “United Native Church,” based on three principles of the Lambeth Quadrilateral (Lambeth Conferences) of 1888 (Scripture, creeds, and sacraments),…

Rebmann, Johannes

(187 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jan 16, 1820, Gerlingen – Oct 4, 1876, Korntal), trained at the Basel Mission seminary, subsequently took Anglican orders and was sent by the Church Missionary Society to East Africa in 1846. With J.L. Krapf, he lived in Rabai among the Mijikenda, in the hinterland of Mombasa (Kenya), hoping that these people would prove more receptive to the gospel than the Swahili-speaking Muslim population on the coast. Like Krapf, Rebmann came from a ¶ pietist tradition. He conducted a number of exploraty journeys to the Chaga people and was the first to report the…

Lesotho

(562 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] is a small mountain kingdom (2000: 30,355 km2; 2.1 million inhabitants; capital: Maseru) surrounded by the Republic of South Africa. Lesotho came into being in the 1820s as a political union (Basutoland) under King Moshoeshoe I, who consolidated the groups of Sotho/Tswana and Nguni speakers fleeing from the Zulu regime. It was constantly in danger of extinction, especially from the Boers from 1850, and became a British protectorate in 1868. From 1966, Lesotho has been independent as a co…

Cripps, Arthur Shearly

(432 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jun 10, 1869, Kent – Aug 1, 1952, Southern Rhodesia), Anglican priest, missionary and campaigner for African political and social rights in the settler-dominated society of colonial Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). An Anglo-Catholic (Anglo-Catholicism), 1901 Cripps was sent by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts to Mashonaland. Later he acquired over 7000 acres of land, where he built a church named Maronda Mashanu (“…

Rwanda

(598 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] a landlocked country in East Africa, with an area of 26,338 km2 and a dense estimated population of 11.1 million (2010). The capital is Kigali. Rwanda is one of the few countries in modern Africa where the overwhelming majority of the population belong to a single ethnic and cultural group. Precolonial Rwanda was a complex society divided into three major groups: the pastoral Tutsi, the rural Hutu, and the Twa, a tribe of hunter-gatherers. A hierarchical system made the Hutu majority (some 9…
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