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Gallikanismus

(732 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Begriff Der erst vom Ultramontanismus des 19. Jh.s geprägte Terminus G. (von mlat. gallicanus, davon franz. gallicanisme) fasst eine Vielzahl von Theorien und Praktiken zusammen, welche die Freiheit und Eigenständigkeit der franz. Kirche gegenüber dem universalen Jurisdiktionsanspruch des Papsttums begründen und durchsetzen wollten. Unterschieden werden können stärker theologisch argumentierende »episkopale Gallikanismen« ( Episkopalismus), welche die territorialkirchliche Unabhängigkeit von der Würde des Bischofsamtes herleiten, und eher juristisch …

Antikatholizismus

(779 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
Die Geschichte von Begriff und Phänomen ist kaum erforscht. Frühe Belege für das engl. Begriffsäquivalent anti-catholicism stammen aus dem viktorianischen England, wo sich der protest. A. während der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jh.s in zahlreichen societies organisierte ( British Reformation Society 1827; Protestant Association 1835/6; National Club 1845 [7]; [6]). Im Antiklerikalismus, Antipapismus und antiröm. Grundtenor einiger spätma. Reformbewegungen (inklusive der Reformation) wurden zwar zentrale Gehalte seiner späteren Erscheinungsformen an…

Katholizismus

(1,909 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Begriff Die neuere Forschung fasst unter dem Terminus K. die Summe aller soziokulturellen Manifestationen der Römisch-Katholischen Kirche zusammen, angefangen von den Formen ihrer institutionellen Verfasstheit über individuelle wie kollektive Frömmigkeitspraktiken bis hin zu idealtypischen ethisch-politischen Haltungen, ökonomischen Verhaltensweisen, künstlerischen Stilen, mentalen Deutungsmustern und theologischen Sinngehalten. Als ein erstes fundamentales Charakteristikum des K. wäre der Anspruch zu nennen, im Untersc…

Bistum

(792 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Begriff B. bezeichnet ein kirchliches Territorium, in dem ein kath. Bischof sein Amt ausübt (Bischofsamt). Dem entspricht auf evang. Seite die Institution der Landeskirche. Der Begriff (von mhdt. bischoftuom, »das, was des Bischofs ist«) wird seit dem MA in der Westkirche weitgehend synonym mit dem schon in der Spätantike üblichen Terminus »Diözese« (griech. dioíkēsis, lat. dioecesis, »Verwaltung«, »Verwaltungsbezirk«) verwendet und bringt die grundlegende Rolle des Bischofs zum Ausdruck. 2. Die Bistümer der Reichskirche In räumlicher Ausdehnung und internem Organi…

Episkopalismus

(818 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Definition Ein weiter E.-Begriff erfasst sämtliche kirchenpolitische Handlungsmuster und ekklesiologische Theorien (Theorien von Kirche), in denen das Bischofsamt als das Grundprinzip der Kirchenverfassung aufgefasst wird. Im Unterschied zum Protestantismus beinhaltet der theoretische E. in der ma. und Römisch-katholischen Kirche nicht die staatsrechtliche Legitimation des landesherrlichen Kirchenregimentes (vgl. Episkopalsystem), sondern eine theologisch und kanonistisch argumentierende Grundlegung der bischöflichen Struktur von Kirche. Das im Laufe d…

Gallicanism

(729 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Definition The term Gallicanism (from Middle Latin gallicanus, hence French  gallicanisme) was coined by 19th-century Ultramontanism. It encapsulates a variety of theories and practices intended to justify and realize the freedom and independence of the French church vis-à-vis the papacy’s claim of universal jurisdiction. There were two basic types of Gallicanism: a more theologically based  “episcopal Gallicanism” (Episcopalianism), which derived the independence of the territorial church from the dignity of the episcopate, an…
Date: 2019-10-14

Diocese

(787 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Concept A diocese (from the Greek dioíkesis, Latin  dioecesis, “administration,” “administrative district”) is an ecclesiastical territory within which a Catholic bishop executes his office (Episcopate). The equivalent in the German-speaking Protestant world is the institution of the Landeskirche. The term “diocese” (French diocèse; Spanish  diócesis; Italian  diocesi; German  Diözese) dates back to Late Antiquity. The term “bishopric” and cognates (French évêché; Spanish obispado; German  Bistum, from MHG  bischoftuom, “that pertaining to the bishop”) h…
Date: 2019-10-14

Catholicism

(2,024 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. Definition Modern scholars use the term  Catholicism as a collective term for all the sociocultural manifestations of the Roman Catholic Church, from the forms of its institutional constitution through individual and collective manifestations of religiosity to ideal-typical ethicopolitical attitudes, patterns of economic behavior, artistic styles, interpretive mental models, and theological meanings. The first and most fundamental feature of Catholicism is probably its claim – unlike the “heretical …
Date: 2019-10-14

Anti-Catholicism

(818 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
Little study has been devoted to the history of the term and the phenomenon. Early occurrences of the term appeared in Victorian England, where Protestant anti-Catholicism was organized in numerous societies during the first half of the 19th century (British Reformation Society, 1827; Protestant Association, 1835/1836; National Club, 1845 [7]; [6]). Although central themes of its later manifestations were anticipated in the anticlericalism, antipopery, and the anti-Roman tenor of some late medieval reform movements (including the Reformation)…
Date: 2019-10-14

Episcopalianism

(823 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
1. DefinitionA broad concept of episcopalism embraces all models of church polity and ecclesiological theories (theories of the church) in which the episcopate is understood as the fundamental principle of church polity. In contrast to Protestantism, theoretical episcopalism in the medieval and Roman Catholic Church does not include constitutional legitimation of church governance by the secular sovereign (cf. Episcopal system) but rather theological and canonistic arguments justifying the episcopal structure of the church.The broad spectrum of practical fo…
Date: 2019-10-14

Pius XII, Pope

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Pope Mar 2, 1939 – Oct 9, 1958; Eugenio Pacelli, born Mar 2, 1876, Rome, died in Castel Gandolfo). After more than two centuries the city of Rome once again had a native Roman as its bishop – and pope. Pacelli grew up in a family of jurisprudents closely connected with the papacy. The network of relationships within which his grandfather and father served as curial officials secured the talented young man effective career promotion from an early age. Before ordination to the prie…

Pius X, Pope (Saint)

(1,020 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; born Jun 2, 1835, Riese, Trevisio; pope Aug 4, 1903 – Aug 28, 1914). On the basis of the many internal reforms accomplished during his pontificate, Pius X must be considered a reforming pope (albeit conservative), distinguished for his personal virtues and a serious desire for greater religious depth. At the same time, severe diplomatic blunders in the political sphere and the crisis of Roman Catholic antimodernism, which reached its peak during his pon…

Leo XIII, Pope

(485 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci, born Aug 2, 1810, Carpineto; pope Feb 20, 1878 – Jul 20, 1903). In the history of the papacy, Leo will be remembered above all as a political realist and the author of the first official Catholic social ethics (Catholic social teaching); his international diplomacy earned him his reputation as “the most significant pope of the 19th century” (Schwaiger). In the wake of the intransigent opposition of his predecessor Pius IX to the states that had emerged …

Schmaus, Michael

(219 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1897, Oberbaar – Dec 8, 1993, Gauting), Catholic theologian. After receiving his doctorate ( Die psychologische Trinitätslehre des heiligen Augustinus, 1927, 21967) and habilitation, he taught in Prague (from 1929), Münster (from 1933), and Munich (1946–1965); in Munich he founded the Grabmann Institute (named after his teacher, M. Grabmann) for the study of medieval theology and philosophy in 1954. His monumental, widely influential Katholische Dogmatik (1938–1941; several revisions, 61960–1964) set itself apart from contemporary Neoschola…

Jaeger, Lorenz

(204 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Sep 23, 1892, Halle an der Saale – Apr 1, 1975, Paderborn), since 1941 archbishop of Paderborn, was named cardinal in 1965, and retired from office in 1973. Jaeger's significance urging the Catholic Church's participation in the ecumenical movement is undisputed. Two institutions trace their foundation essentially to him. In 1946, together with W. Stählin, Jaeger initiated the Ökumenischer Arbeitskreis evangelischer und katholischer Theologen (ÖAK) and, in 1957, the Johann Adam M…

Sedlnitzki, Leopold, Count von

(204 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1787, Geppersdorf [Linhartovy] – Mar 25, 1871, Berlin), of Moravian-Silesian nobility. After holding positions in both the bishopric and the state school system, at the instigation of the Prussian government he was elected prince bishop of Breslau in 1835 and was consecrated in 1836. His stance in the Prussian Church Dispute led to a confrontation with the diocesan clergy and with Rome: Sedlnitzki, an ecumenically minded supporter of the state church, wanted to maintain t…

Kleutgen, Joseph

(222 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1811, Dortmund, Germany – Jan 13, 1883, St. Anton, Austria), Catholic philosopher and theologian and a member of the Society of Jesus from 1834. After studying philosophy, classical philology, and theology, Kleutgen was resident primarily in Rome from 1847 onward, fulfilling functions in his order and teaching rhetoric in the Collegium Germanicum. As an author, consultant for the Index Congregation (1850–1862, Index Librorum Prohibitorum ), and as a theologian at Vatican I, he contributed significantly to the establish…

Günther, Johann Christian

(168 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[German Version] (Apr 8, 1695, Strzegom [Ger. Striegau], Poland – Mar 15, 1723, Jena), a poet of the transition period between Baroque and the Enlightenment. During his short and unsteady life (Protestant grammar school in Schweidnitz from 1710 to 1715, from 1715 study of medicine in Frankfurt an der Oder and Wittenberg, relocation to Leipzig in 1717, from 1720 short stays in Silesian towns with changing patrons) Günther managed to produce more than 600 ¶ poems, letters, and one drama under the pressure of permanent existential precariousness. The elaborate rhetorical…

Schmaus

(186 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[English Version] Schmaus, Michael (17.7.1897 Oberbaar – 8.12.1993 Gauting), kath. Dogmatiker. Nach Promotion (Die psychologische Trinitätslehre des hl. Augustinus, 1927, 21967) und Habil. Prof. in Prag (ab 1929), Münster (ab 1933), München (1946–1965); Gründer des nach seinem Lehrer M. Grabmann benannten Münchner »Institut zur Erforschung der ma. Theol. und Philos.« (1954). Bereits seine monumentale, mehrmals überarbeitete, breitenwirksame »Kath. Dogmatik« (1938–1941, 61960–1964) setzte sich von der zeitgenössischen Neuscholastik durch dezidiertes Bem…

Schwarzenberg

(98 words)

Author(s): Wassilowsky, Günther
[English Version] Schwarzenberg, Friedrich Fürst zu (6.4.1809 Wien – 27.3.1885 ebd.), aus böhmischem Hochadel, 1836 Erzbf. von Salzburg, 1842 Kardinal, 1850 Erzbf. von Prag, wo er sich im Nationalitätenkampf um Ausgleich bemühte. Sch. sympathisierte mit der geistigen Offenheit und den kirchl. Reformideen von A. Günther und war gegen die neuscholastische Monopolisierung der Theol. Von Anfang an weniger ultramontan geprägt, wurde er auf dem Vaticanum I zu einem Führer der Minorität (Papsttum: III., 4.). Günther Wassilowsky Bibliography E. Gatz (Hg.), Die Bfe. der deut…
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