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(244 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[English Version] Nicole, Pierre (19.10.1625 Chartres – 16.11.1695 Paris), jansenistischer Theologe, lehrte in Port Royal (1646), in Flandern und Frankreich (1679) und seit 1683 in Paris; eng befreundet mit A. Arnauld (5.), verteidigte er in mehreren, teils pseudonymen Schriften die Rechtgläubigkeit des Jansenismus und unterschied in der Verurteilung der Lehre des C. Jansen durch Innozenz X. (1653) die »quaestio iuris« von der »quaestio facti« (Innocentii papae brevissima quinque propositionum in v…

Nordische Missionen

(328 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[English Version] . Nach dem Untergang der kath. Bischofssitze im Norden des alten Reiches und in Skandinavien in der Reformation wurde die dortige kath. Restbevölkerung (und zuwandernde kath. Handwerker, Kaufleute, Künstler, Soldaten) jurisdiktionell zunächst dem Kölner Nuntius, dann der 1622 gegründeten röm. Kongregation für die Glaubensverbreitung unterstellt und ihre seelsorgerliche Betreuung »vor Ort« den Nuntien in Köln, Brüssel und Warschau übertragen. 1667 erwirkte der (1651) konvertierte …

Benedict XIV, Pope

(397 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] Jul 17, 1740 – May 3, 1758 (Prospero Lambertini, born Mar 31, 1675, Bologna). From an old noble family, he rose rapidly in the curial administration after theological and legal studies in Rome (1694: Dr. theol. et iur.), became titular bishop of Theodosia in 1725, cardinal in petto in 1726 (made public in 1728), archbishop of Ancona in 1727, and archbishop of Bologna in 1731. Elected pope as a compromise candidate after a conclave which lasted more than …

Faulhaber, Michael

(210 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Mar 5, 1869, Klosterheidenfeld – Jun 12, 1952, Munich). Faulhaber was ordained priest in 1892, attained the Dr.theol. in 1895, became professor of Old Testament in Strasbourg in 1903, bishop of Speyer in 1911, also deputy field provost of the Bavarian Army in 1914, archbishop of Munich (I) and Freising in 1917, and finally cardinal in 1921. He was widely known as a brilliant speaker and powerful preacher. A resolute monarchist, he kept his distance from the Weimar Republic. Despi…

Wittig, Joseph

(205 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Jan 22, 1879, County of Glatz [Kladsko] – Aug 22, 1949, Göhrde), theologian and popular religious writer. He received his Dr.theol. from the University of Breslau in 1902 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1903; in 1915 he was appointed pro-¶ fessor of Early Church history at Breslau. His Easter article “Die Erlösten” [The Redeemed] published in Hochland in 1922 used the form of an autobiographical narrative to criticize his church’s contemporary penitential system (doctrine of justification); as a result, his works were placed on the Index and he was excommunic…

Kolping, Adolf

(517 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Dec 8, 1813, Kerpen near Cologne – Dec 4, 1865, Cologne) was the son of a small farmer and originally a journeyman cobbler who, in part ¶ through private study, achieved his Abitur (high-school diploma) in 1841. He studied theology in Munich and Bonn, was ordained priest in Cologne in 1845, and became chaplain in Elberfeld. When, as the president of the Gesellenverein, “journeyman union,” founded there in 1846 by the teacher Johann Gregor Breuer, Kolping was again confronted with the needs of the journeyman class and the industrial proletar…

Pantaleon (Saint)

(230 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] According to the Greek Passio (5th/6th cent.), Pantaleon was the son of a pagan father and Christian mother in Nicomedia and a student of the emperor’s personal physician Euphrosynos. After his conversion he healed a blind man in the name of Christ. Envious members of the college of physicians denounced him; even his successful healing of a paralytic in a contest with his informers before the emperor Maximian could not save him from martyrdom. The lions in the arena refused to attack …

Vicari, Hermann von

(348 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (May 13, 1773, Aulendorf – Apr 14, 1868, Freiburg im Breisgau), archbishop of Freiburg (1843–1868). In 1798 he obtained a canonry at the collegiate church of St. John in Constance. He studied in Augsburg, Vienna, and Dillingen, where he received his Dr.iur.utr. in 1797. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1797 but never served a parish; instead he was active in church administration from the outset, initially as a colleague of I.H. v. Wessenberg in Constance, after 1827 as canon …

Mindszenty, József

(430 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (orig. Pehm; Mar 29, 1892, Csehimindszent, Vas district, Hungary – May 6, 1975, Vienna), last prince-primate of Hungary. After seminary studies in Szombathely, he was ordained priest in 1915 and was appointed pastor of Zalaegerszeg in 1919. In 1944 he was made bishop of Veszprém and in 1945 archbishop of Esztergom and prince-primate. In 1946 he was made cardinal. His career as a writer and political activist began early. In 1919 he was arrested as an enemy of the revolutionary gov…

Alexander VII, Pope

(199 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Apr 7, 1655 – May 22, 1667). Born as Fabio Chigi on Feb 13, 1599 in Siena, he was, following philosophical, legal, and theological studies in Siena (1626 Dr. Theol.), in papal service from 1628 onward: 1629–1634, vice-legate in Ferrara; 1635–1639, Inquisitor and Apostolic Legate in Malta (1634, ordination to the priesthood; 1635, bishop of Na…

Pancras, Saint

(228 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] According to the legendary Passio (6th cent.?), Pancras was from a prominent Phrygian family. He came as an orphan to Rome, where he was baptized, and at the age of 14, under Diocletian (or Valerian), he was beheaded on May 12 (304 or 257?) on the Via Aurelia, and buried there in the catacombs named after him. Pope Symmachus had a basilica built over his tomb, and this was given its present form ( San Pancratio fuori le mura) by Pope Honorius I. His cult, first documented in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum (mid-6th cent.), spread throughout Europe. As patron saint of a…

Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

(383 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (born Thérèse Martin; religious name Thérèse de l’Enfant-Jésus et de la Sainte-Face; Jan 2, 1873, Alençon – Sep 30, 1897, Lisieux). In 1888 Thérèse entered the cloistered Carmelite community at Lisieux; an extremely sensitive person since the death of her mother in 1877, she initially experienced very severe treatment and suffered from the “dryness” of her prayer life. The mental breakdown of her father (who died in 1894) was also a severe burden. In 1896 she contracted tuberculosis, of which she died the next year. In her autobiographical L’histoire d’une âme (ET: Story…

Noailles, Louis-Antoine de

(195 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (May 27, 1651, Castle Peynière near Aurillac – May 4, 1729, Paris), Dr.theol., Sorbonne (1676); archbishop of Paris (1681); cardinal (1700). Thanks to royal favor, Noailles’s ecclesiastical career rose rapidly (1679, bishop of Cahors; 1681, of Chalons-sur-Marne), yet he proved remarkably ambivalent in the theological controversies of his time (Quietism, Jansenism). He agreed to the destruction of the (former) Jansenist center of Port-Royal Abbey (1711), but opposed the condemnatio…

Hofbauer, Clement Mary, Saint

(222 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Dec 26, 1751, Tasswitz [Tasovice], Moravia – Mar 15, 1820, Vienna). Apprenticed as a baker, he studied theology as a “late vocation” in Vienna, joining the Redemptorists in 1784. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1785. In 1788 he became vicar general of his order for northern Europe. From 1808 he served as a pastor in Vienna, with a strong commitment to social and charitable work; not least because of his rustic manner, he was an engaging preacher. His charismatic personality made him the focus of a Romantic circle (including F. Schlegel, Z. ¶ Werner, A. Günther, and Jo…

Nordic Missions

(371 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] When the Reformation put an end to the Catholic episcopal sees in the northern lands of the Old Empire, the remaining Catholic population (and immigrant Catholic craftsmen, merchants, artists, and soldiers) came initially under the jurisdiction of the Cologne nuncio, then of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, established in 1622, and it pastoral representatives “on the ground,” the nuncios in Cologne, Brussels, and Warsaw. In 1667 the duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, wh…

Nicole, Pierre

(269 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Oct 19, 1625, Chartres – Nov 16, 1695, Paris), Jansenist theologian. Nicole taught at the abbey of Port-Royal (1646), in Flanders and France (1679), and in Paris (from 1683). A close friend of Antoine Arnauld, Nicole wrote several, sometimes pseudonymous, writings defending the orthodoxy of Jansenism, and with regard to the condemnation of the teachings of C. Jansen by Innocent X (1653) he distinguished the quaestio iuris from the quaestio facti ( Innocentii papae brevissima quinque propositionum in varios sensus distinctio, 1653). Nicole was involved in the…

Deharbe, Joseph

(202 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred
[German Version] (Apr 1, 1800, Strasbourg – Nov 8, 1871, Maria Laach), a catechist, Jesuit (1817), and priest (1828), worked 1830–1841 as professor of rhetoric in Brig and Fribourg, Switzerland, and 1845–1847 as professor of pastoral theology in Lucerne. In his apologetic Katholisches Katechismus oder Lehrbegriff, nebst einem kurzen Abriß der Religionsgeschichte von Anbeginn der Welt bis auf unsere Zeit (1847, anonymous; ET: A Complete Catechism of the Catholic Religion, 1924), he attempted to grasp doctrinal content in rational terms.…


(1,681 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred | Smolka, Wolfgang J.
[German Version] I. City and Archbishopric – II. University I. City and Archbishopric Munich is the capital of Bavaria (in 1999, approx. 1.38 million inhabitants, 45.5% Catholic, 16.4% Protestant), with two universities (see II below), seat of the archbishop of Munich and Freising (cardinal) and of the Protestant regional bishop of Bavaria. The first documented reference to Munich appeared in 1158, in connection with the dispute between Bishop Otto of Freising and Duke Henry the Lion about market, bridge t…


(1,376 words)

Author(s): Weitlauff, Manfred | Germann, Michael | Klaiber, Jeffrey
[German Version] I. General Church History – II. Europe – III. Latin America I. General Church History Laicism (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”; Laity) originated in 19th-century France ( laïcisme) as an aggressively anticlerical concept; originally it proposed absolute separation of the state, secular culture, and the church (esp. the Catholic Church; Church and state), opposing all public influence on the part of the church. Its intellectual roots were in the Enlightenment and especially the French Revolution – although it r…


(1,498 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Weitlauff, Manfred | Wolf, Hubert
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Als Primat (P.) bez. man die rechtliche Vorrangstellung des Papstes (Papat) als Bischof von Rom in der Gesamtkirche, d.h. seine höchste und unmittelbare Leitungsgewalt in der Gesamtkirche als Haupt des Bischofskollegiums, Hirte der Gesamtkirche und Stellvertreter Christi auf Erden (c.331 CIC/1983: »Der Bischof der Kirche von Rom … ist Haupt des Bischofskollegiums, Stellvertreter Christi und Hirte der Gesamtkirche hier auf Erden; deshalb verfügt er kraft seines Amtes …
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