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Sacred wars

(585 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἱεροὶ πόλεμοι/ hieroì pólemoi). As a concept hieròs pólemos is first encountered in the late 5th cent. BC and according to Aristophanes (Av. 554ff., particularly 556 with schol. = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 34 b) means 'war against divinity', whereas Thucydides (1,112,5; with the addition of καλούμενος/ kaloúmenos, 'so-called') uses it to describe the Spartans' intervention in Delphi in 448 on the pretext of protecting the sanctuary of Apollo [1. 1-14]. Accordingly there was no idea of a religious campaign for a deity [2. 67-87].…

Cinadon

(106 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κινάδων; Kinádōn). In 398 BC, C. a hypomeion (‘Inferior’), thus presumably the son of Spartan parents but without full citizens' rights, sought widespread support for a revolt to overthrow the ruling class of the Spartiatae, by approaching  Helots, Neodamodes, hypomeiones and  Perioikoi. No details about his planned reforms are known. C. was betrayed, lured into a trap and killed after naming his fellow conspirators under torture. In Xenophon's version (Hell. 3,3,4-11), C. generalizes, exaggerating the tensions within Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bib…

Mastigophoroi

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (μαστιγοφόροι; mastigophóroi, ‘whip-carriers’). In Sparta, young men (ἡβῶντες/ hēbṓntes), who assisted the paidonómoi in the agōgḗ of boys (Xen. Lac. 2,2). In Athens in 404 BC they were the infamous 300 policemen under the Thirty ( triákonta ; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 35,1). In Corcyra they were 425 guards in charge of prisoners (Thuc. 4,47,3). In Hellenistic Egypt they were servants to higher dignitaries, e.g. the oikonómos, the representative of the king in the nomoí (PTebtunis 121,58; cf. P CZ 80,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Stasippus

(114 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Στάσιππος/ Stásippos). Leader of the pro-Spartan 'oligarchs' in Tegea (Xen. Hell. 6,4,18) who in the summer of 370 BC opposed annexation, instigated by anti-Spartan forces in Tegea, to a pan-Arcadian state, planned by 'democrats' in Mantinea. Initially successful in the disturbances unleashed by this [1. 505-507; 2. 105; 3. 74 f.], S. did not, however, have his defeated opponents prosecuted and, after the Mantineans intervened, he and his supporters were overcome, captured despite…

Phrourarchos

(158 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (φρούραρχος/ phroúrarchos). 'Commander' ( archós) of a 'guard' ( phrourá), commander of a garrison or fortress. In the Delian League the office involved performing both military and political functions. For example, after their intervention in Erythrae [2] in about 453/2 BC, the Athenians commissioned their phrourarchos and their epískopos [1] there to supervise the appointment of a new council. The phrourarchos was to perform this duty every year from then on in cooperation with the local council that was stepping down (IG I3 14). The term is also used as the…

Agiads

(245 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγιάδαι; Agiádai). Royal dynasty in Sparta, which, according to Herodotus (6,51), held a higher rank than the second Spartan royal dynasty, the ( Eurypontids). However, the authority of individual kings was based on their deeds and the quality of their leadership. As the founding father of the A. stands the mythic figure of the Heraclid  Eurysthenes, whose son Agis [1] I became the eponymous hero of the house. In the early construct devised to explain the Spartan double kingdom ap…

Labotas

(50 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λαβώτας; Labṓtas). Legendary Spartan king of the house of the Agiads. During his (fictional) reign (traditionally 1025/4-989/8 BC), Sparta is said to have fought against Argus for the first time (Apollod. FGrH 244 F 62; Hdt. 1,65; 7,204; Plut. Mor. 224c; Paus. 3,2,3f.). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lacrates

(36 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Spartan olympic champion; died in 403 BC during a skirmish in Piraeus against resistance fighters who freed Athens from the rule of the ‘Thirty’ ( Triakonta) (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Zeuxidamus

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ζευξίδαμος/ Zeuxídamos). [German version] [1] King of Sparta, c. 700 BC Was considered a Spartan king of the house of the Eurypontids and a son of Archidamus, is supposed to have been the successor to his grandfather Theopompus [1] towards the end of the 8th cent. BC, but is not mentioned in Hdt. 8,131, appearing only in Pausanias' list of Spartan kings (3,7,6; 4,15,3) into which he was probably inserted only in the 4th cent. BC [1. 97; 2. 344 f.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Son of Leotychidas [2] II Eurypontid, son of the Spartan king Leotychidas [2] II (…

Agesipolis

(359 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀγησίπολις; Agēsípolis). [German version] [1] I., Spartan king (395-380 BC) A. I, Agiad, son of the Spartan king Pausanias and older brother of Cleombrotus I, became king when his father had to go into exile after the battle at Haliartus 395 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,89; Paus. 3,5,7). First under the guardianship of his relative Aristodemus [3] (Xen. Hell. 4,2,9), he achieved already in 388/87 successes against the Argives (Xen. Hell. 4,7,2-7) and forced the polis of Mantinea under specious pretences to dioikismos into four villages in 385/84 (Xen. Hell. 5,2,3-7; Paus. 8,8,7-9). Af…

Megillus

(102 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μέγιλλος/ Mégillos). Spartan, one of three members of a legation which negotiated the release of prisoners of war in Athens in 408/7 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 44; [1. 50; 2. 395]). He was probably identical with a homonymous member of a legation sent by Agesilaus [2] II to Tissaphernes in 396 (Xen. Hell. 3,4,6), and with an interlocutor in Plato (Epin. passim and Leg. 642b), described there as a guest of the Athenians. Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 D. J. Mosley, Envoys and Diplomacy in Ancient Greece, 1973 2 B. Bleckmann, Athens Weg in die…

Herippidas

(161 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἑριππίδας; Herippídas). A Spartiate, who after 400 BC belonged to the inner circle of Sparta's political leaders [1. 154]; in 399, he suppressed an uprising in Heraclea Trachinia (Diod. Sic. 14,38,4-5) [2. 120f., 154]. 395 saw him as an influential adviser to Agesilaus [2] during the latter's campaign in Asia Minor, when he also commanded the Cyreans, who in 394 were once again under his command at Coronea (Xen. Hell. 3,4,20; 4,1,11-14; 20-28; 4,3,15). Following the death of the nauarchos Podanemus, he temporarily assumed command of the navy in the Corint…

Timouchos

(293 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (τιμοῦχος/ timoûchos). Holder of an honour, honorary position or office (formed from τιμὴν ἔχειν, timḕn échein, 'to have/hold honour'); first recorded in the form τιμάοχος as an epithet of deities in the 7th cent. BC (Hom. Hymnos to Demeter 268 f.; Hom. Hymnos to Aphrodite 31 f.); as office holders timoûchoi are recorded almost only in communities of the Ionic dialect groups, e.g. in the early 5th cent. BC in Teos (Syll.3 37/8; ML 30), where they had to pronounce curse formulas against enemies of the polis at the Anthesteria and at festivals for …

Teleutias

(169 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τελευτίας/ Teleutías). Spartiate, step-brother of Agesilaus [2] II (Xen. Hell.  4,4,19; Plut. Agesilaos 21,1), commander of Spartan fleets several times between 392 and 381 BC, nauarchos in 387/6 (Xen. Hell. 5,1,13). In 392 he conquered ships and destroyed wharves in Lechaeum (Xen. Hell. 4,4,19; Plut. Agesilaos 21,1-3); in 390 he took over the fleet of the naúarchos Ecdicus in Cnidus, captured ten Athenian triremes and supported Sparta's partisans in Rhodes [1. 84-86]. He surrendered his fleet to the nauarchos Hierax in Aegina in 389 …

Timaea

(90 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τίμαια/ Tímaia). Spartan, wife of Agis [2] II, in 415 BC supposedly seduced by Alcibiades [3] who thus fathered her son Leotychidas [3], yet this is doubtful [1. 67 f.]. Agis only recognised Leotychidas as his son on his death-bed, in order to enable him to succeed to the throne. Lysander [1], however, saw to the election of Agesilaus [2] II (Duris FGrH 76 F 69; Xen. Hell.  3,3,1-4; Paus. 3,8,8-10; Plut. Agesilaus 3; Plut. Alcibiades 23,7-9; Plut. Lysander 22,6-13; Plut.  Mor. 467 f.). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989.

Pleistoanax

(191 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πλειστοάναξ/ Pleistoánax). Son of the Spartan regent Pausanias [1] of the house of the Agiads, king 458-408/7 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,75,1), initially under the guardianship of his uncle Nicomedes [1] (Thuc. 1,107,2; Diod. Sic. 11,79,6). In 446, P., in command of a Spartan army in fact led by his advisor Cleandridas, was to march on Attica to engage Athenian troops during the  Euboean revolt. However, after one attack he returned to the Thriasian plain, was charged in Sparta by Pericles…

Trierarchia

(170 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (τριηραρχία; triērarchía). Obligation to equip a trireme for one year and to command the crew ( c. 200 men). Introduced in 483/2 as a military leiturgia (Liturgy I.) in place of the naukrariai , which were no longer sufficient following the naval rearmament programme of Themistocles. Later also used as a technical term for the command of other warships. Because of the great financial burden it imposed, the system was modified from 410 BC by the syntrierarchy (two trierarchoi per ship), and the load was distributed still more in 357 BC or shortly before by t…

Eurypontids

(124 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐρυπωντίδαι; Eurypōntídai). Spartan royal house, whose representatives according to Herodotus (6,51) were supposed to have less prestige than the royal house of the Agiads. In fact the E. provided important kings such as Archidamus II, Agesilaus II, Agis II, III and IV. Its eponym was the fictitious figure of Eurypon, a descendant of Heracles in the sixth (Hdt. 8,131; Str. 8,366) or seventh generation (Plut. Lycurgus 1; Paus. 3,7,1). The list of E., like that of the Agiads, is unusable historically for the period prior to the early 6th cent. BC.  Agiads Welwei, Karl-W…

Tellis

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τέλλις; Téllis). Spartiate, father of Brasidas, married to Argileonis, who commented on the death of her son (in 422 BC) with the words that he had been brave but Sparta had better men (Plut. Lycurgus 25,8-9; Plut. Mor. 190b; 219d; 240c; Diod. Sic. 12,74,3). T. swore to the Peace of Nicias (Nicias [1]) in 421 BC (Thuc. 5,19,2; 5,24,1) and was then doubtless a champion of Spartan peace policy. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Struthas

(89 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Στρούθας/ Stroúthas; Tod, Nr. 113: Στρούσης/ Stroúsēs). Persian satrap in Ionia [1.216], installed by Artaxerxes [2] II in 391 BC in place of Tiribazus. He was supposed to introduce anti-Spartan politics, immediately approached Athens and defeated the army of Thibron, whom Sparta had dispatched to Asia Minor and who had gained control over the Plain of Maeander from Ephesus after his arrival but then acted carelessly and fell in the battle against S. (Xen. Hell. 4,8,17-19; Diod. Sic. 14,99,1-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Hornblower, in: CA…
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