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Primianus

(131 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] In 393 he became the successor of Parmenianus in Carthage and primate of the Donatist (Donatus [1]) Church (Aug. Contra epistulam Parmeniani 3,2,11); not long after his election he was removed from office by opposing clerics led by Maximianus (Maximianist Schism), but in 394  he was reinstated in office in the Council of Bagae (modern Ksar Baghaï in Algeria). Weakened by his brutal actions against the followers of Maximianus, he gained no Church-political traction against the Cath…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Miltiades

(1,099 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Μιλτιάδης; Miltiádēs). From the 7th (Paus. 4,23,10; 8,39,3) to the 4th cent. BC, a name belonging to the family of the Philaïdae in Athens. [German version] [1] M. the Elder Victor in the four-horse chariot race at Olympia, probably in 548 BC. Son of Cypselus (archon 597/6 BC), grandson (?) of the tyrant Cypselus [2] of Corinth, relative ([7. 7]: adoptive son) of Hippocleides (archon 566/5); from the same mother as the three-time Olympian victor Cimon [1]. M. was victor in the four-horse chariot race at Olympia (548?). ‘Dynast’ alongsi…

Pelagius

(849 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Πελάγιος; Pelágios). [German version] [1] Schoolfellow and friend of Libanius, high-ranking official Fellow student and friend of Libanius, in AD 357; represented his home city Cyrrhus (in Euphratensis) before Constantius [2] II in Italy; in about 382 he was consularis Syriae; he died in 393, a non-Christian (it is to him that Lib. Epist. 1325 and 1334 are addressed). PLRE 1, 686 (P. 1). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Epic poet and historian, 5th cent. Silentiarius ( Silentiarii ), distinguished epic poet and probably also historian…

Petilianus

(181 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] Donatist (Donatus [1]) bishop of Constantina/Cirta (Constantine in Algeria), first a catechumen of the Catholic Church, then baptized and ordained in the Donatist Church, after 394 bishop (Aug. Contra litteras Petiliani 3,239). He was one of the leading speakers at the Conference of Carthage in 411, along with Primianus. † after 419/422. His Epistula ad presbyteros et diaconos regarding baptismal theology, schism and state persecution (around 400) and his wrathful Epistula ad Augustinum (402) can be reconstructed in part based on the reply in Augustine's Contra l…

Optatus

(565 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (“child desired by parents”), very widespread in the Imperial period; equally commonly a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, vol. 1, 1994, 110-111. [German version] [2] Flavius O. Imperial grammar teacher, 4th cent. AD Grammar teacher of the son of the emperor Licinius [II 4]. Allegedly, because of his wife's beauty he had great influence under Constantine [1] the Great and was appointed consul b…

Marcus

(4,055 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Μάρκος; Márkos). I. Greek [German version] [I 1] The Evangelist, [1] (Lat. Marcus). The author of the second Gospel (Mk) could be a missionary (Iohannes) M. who is often mentioned in the NT especially in close association with Paulus (Acts 12:12:25; Phm 24 among others) (for example, for the first time Papias around AD 130, see Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3,39,15). The fact that evidence of a closeness to Paul's theology can barely be found [3] is an argument against this identification, while the straightforwardn…

Zosimus

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ζώσιμος; Zṓsimos). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, epigrammatist, probably between 150 BC and AD 50 Z. of Thasos. Greek epigrammatist, whose works are probably to be dated between 150 BC and AD 50: three (Anth. Pal 6,183-185; 6,15 is also ascribed to him, alternatively to Antipater [8] of Sidon) are variations on the theme of 'dedication to Pan' from the view of a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (cf. Satyrius). Another deals with the unusual theme of a shield saving its owner who uses it as a raft (Anth. Pal. 9,40, cf. Diocles [10]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 104-…

Novatus

(113 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] Catholic bishop of Sitifis in Mauretania (modern Sétif in Algeria) 403-437 (driven out by the Vandals), † 23 August 440 in exile (funerary inscription CIL VIII 8634). N. participated in the Conference of Carthage in 411 (Gesta Conlationis Carthaginiensis 1,2; 1,55; 2,2) and the councils of Mileve in 416 (Aug. Epist. 176), Carthage in 418 and Carthage in 419 (CCL 149. 151). He was invited to the council of Spoleto planned for June 419 by Galla [3] Placidia. In 429/30 he introduced the comes Darius to Augustine (Aug. Epist. 229-230). Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) Bibliograph…

Misenus

(306 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] I. Greek (Μισηνός; Misēnós). [German version] [I 1] Trumpeter of Hector Trumpeter of Hector and, after his death, of Aeneas [1] (Verg. Aen. 6,164ff.), son of the Trojan Aeolus (ibid.; cf. Ov. Met. 14,103). When competing in shell-blowing against a trumpeter called Trito in the Bay of Cumae, he perished in the waves and was lost (Verg. Aen. 6,171ff.). Later, his body was recovered and, on the command of Sibyl (ibid. 149ff.), ceremoniously buried (ibid. 175ff.). Eponym of the foothills of Misenum (Strab. 5,4,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,53). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Parmenianus

(162 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] Of non-African origin (Optatus 1,5); as a result of a decree by emperor Iulianus [11] in favour of the Donatists (Donatus [1]), he was able to appear as primate of the Donatist Church of Carthage around 362 (Optatus 2,7), reorganize the Donatist Church after a period of suppression under Constance [1], and strengthen it theologically as an orator and writer (Aug. Contra Cresconium 1,3). His writings (on baptismal theology, ecclesiology, the origin of the schism, persecution) are m…

Maximinus

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] M. Daia Roman emperor, AD 305-313 Roman emperor, AD 305-313. The son of Galerius' [5] sister and like Galerius born in Dacia ripensis, possibly in Šarkamen (modern Serbia), he rose from protector to tribunus (Lactant. De mort. pers. 19,6); as Galerius' adoptive son he became Caesar in the change of rulers of 305 (thereafter: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). As co-ruler over the diocese Oriens he continued the persecutions of Christians (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 8,14,9). Like Constantinus [1] not content with the title …

Optatus

(514 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[English version] [1] Röm. Cognomen Röm. Cognomen (“der von den Eltern erwünschte Nachkomme”), in der Kaiserzeit weit verbreitet; ebenso häufiger Sklavenname. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtröm. Sklavennamen, Bd. 1, 1994, 110-111. [English version] [2] Flavius O. kaiserlicher Grammatiklehrer, 4. Jh. Erzog als Grammatiklehrer den Sohn des Kaisers Licinius [II 4]. Angeblich besaß er wegen der Schönheit seiner Frau hohen Einfluß unter Constantinus [1] d.Gr. und wurde von diese…

Misenus

(133 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[English version] Bischof von Cumae, *435, † 11.1.511 (laut einer Inschr. von Puteoli; ILCV 1019). Mit Bischof Vitalis reiste er 483 als Legat Felix' III. nach Konstantinopel, um gegen die monophysitischen Tendenzen von Kaiser Zenon und Patriarch Akakios [4] zu intervenieren (Monophysitismus); er ließ sich aber von Akakios umstimmen und wurde daher von der röm. Synode 484 seines Amtes enthoben. Trotz Intervention der östlichen Kirchenvertreter wurde M. erst durch Papst Gelasius I. (492-496) auf de…

Petilianus

(169 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[English version] Donatistischer (Donatus [1]) Bischof von Constantina/Cirta (Constantine in Algerien), zuerst Katechumene der kathol. Kirche, dann getauft und ordiniert in der donatistischen Kirche, nach 394 Bischof (Aug. contra litteras Petiliani 3,239). Bei der Religionskonferenz von Karthago 411 gehörte er neben Primianus zu den führenden Sprechern. † nach 419/422. Seine Epistula ad presbyteros et diaconos zu Tauftheologie, Schisma und staatlichen Verfolgungsmaßnahmen (um 400) und seine zornige Epistula ad Augustinum (402) sind aus der Replik in Augustinus' Contra l…

Parmenianus

(148 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[English version] Nichtafrikan. Ursprungs (Optatus 1,5); aufgrund eines Erlasses von Kaiser Iulianus [11] zugunsten der Donatisten (Donatus [1]) kann er um 362 als Primas der donatist. Kirche von Karthago auftreten (Optatus 2,7) und die donatist. Kirche nach einer Zeit der Unterdrückung unter Constans [1] neu organisieren und als Redner und Schriftsteller theologisch stärken (Aug. contra Cresconium 1,3). Seine Schriften (zu Tauftheologie, Ekklesiologie, Ursprung des Schismas, Verfolgung) sind grei…

Marcellinus

(1,062 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
Siehe auch Markellinos. [English version] [1] Bf. von Rom seit 296 Röm. Bischof seit 296 n.Chr., laut Liber Pontificalis 1,61 aus Rom gebürtig; nach Eus. HE 7,32 soll er während der Verfolgung unter Diocletianus am 24.10.304 hingerichtet worden sein. Seine Haltung in der Verfolgungszeit ist jedoch umstritten. Sein Name fehlt im Chronograph von 354 (MGH AA 9,1,70). Augustinus verteidigt M. gegenüber den Donatisten, die ihn des Verrats bezichtigen (contra litteras Petiliani 2,92,102; de unico baptismo 16,27)…

Maximinus

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[English version] [1] M. Daia röm. Kaiser 305-313 n.Chr. Röm. Kaiser 305-313 n.Chr. Als Sohn der Schwester des Galerius [5] und wie dieser in der Dacia ripensis geboren, vielleicht in Šarkamen (h. Serbien), stieg er vom protector zum tribunus auf (Lact. mort. pers. 19,6) und wurde Caesar im Thronwechsel von 305 als Adoptivsohn des Galerius (seither: Galerius Valerius Maximinus). Als Teilherrscher über die Diözese Oriens führte er die Christenverfolgung fort (Eus. HE 8,14,9). Wie Constantinus [1] gab sich M. nicht mit dem Titel eines…

Novatus

(106 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[English version] Katholischer Bischof von Sitifis in Mauretanien (h. Sétif in Algerien) 403-437 (Vertreibung durch die Vandalen), † 23.8.440 im Exil (Grabinschr. CIL VIII 8634). N. nahm teil an der Religionskonferenz von Karthago 411 (Gesta conlationis Carthaginiensis 1,2; 1,55; 2,2) sowie den Konzilien von Mileve 416 (Aug. epist. 176), Karthago 418 und Karthago 419 (CCL 149. 151). Er war von Galla [3] Placidia zu dem für Juni 419 geplanten Konzil von Spoleto eingeladen. 429/30 führte er den Comes Darius bei Augustinus ein (Aug. epist. 229-230). Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) Biblio…

Pelagios

(779 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
(Πελάγιος). [English version] [1] Mitschüler und Freund des Libanios, hoher Amtsträger Mitschüler und Freund des Libanios, vertrat 357 n.Chr. seine Heimatstadt Kyrrhos (in der Euphratensis) vor Constantius [2] II. in Italien; etwa 382 war er consularis Syriae, er starb 393 (an ihn sind Lib. epist. 1325 und 1334 gerichtet). Nichtchrist. PLRE 1, 686 (P. 1). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [English version] [2] Epiker und Historiker, 5. Jh. Silentiarius ( silentiarii ), trat als Epiker und wohl auch Historiker hervor. Unter den Kaisern Leo(n) [4] I. und Zenon als patríkios
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