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(2,098 words)

Author(s): Werner Arnold
1. The Neo-Aramaic dialects The modern Aramaic dialects are the remnants of a wide variety of Old and Middle Aramaic dialects that dominated the Middle East in antiquity. The western variety of Aramaic survived only in three villages in the Qalamūn Mountains in Syria, 60 km north of Damascus, whereas the eastern variety survived until the beginning of the 20th century in large areas with hundreds of thousands of speakers in southeast Turkey, in northern Iraq, in Persian Azerbaijan, and in Persian Kurdistan. The massacres in eastern Turkey in 1915 exterminated not only Ar…
Date: 2018-04-01

Antiochia Arabic

(4,968 words)

Author(s): Werner Arnold
1. General 1.1 Geographical area Arabic in Antiochia is spoken by Sunnis, Alawis (Nuṣayris), Christians, and by the Jewish community of the city of Antakya. Until 1999 a small Arabic-speaking community also existed in the city of Iskenderun. In the second half of the 20th century, many Arabs left Antiochia and settled in Europe, so that, for example, the Christian community of Yayladağ no longer exists. All of the Alawites live in the Western part of the province of Antioch, west of a line from Iskenderun to Kılıçtutan. The Sunnis live east of this line except for the Arabic-speak…
Date: 2018-09-15