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Vacalus

(63 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (modern Waal). A slow-flowing (Tac. Ann. 2,6,3 f.) left bank distributary of the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine); it incorporates the Mosa [1] (modern Maas) to form the Insula Batavorum (Caes. Gall. 4,10,2; Tac. Ann. 2,6: Vahalis; Serv. Aen. 8,727: Vahal) and the Rhenus Bicornis ('with two horns';  cf. Verg. Aen. 8,727). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography P. Goessler, s. v. V., RE 7 A, 2018-2024.

Lopodunum

(464 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] modern Ladenburg in the lower reaches of the Nicer (Neckar). The Celtic place name, earlier also interpreted as ‘stronghold of Lo(u)pos’, means something like ‘swamp fortress’ [1]. Few archaeological traces of the former Celtic population are preserved. From about the Tiberian period (AD 14-37), Suebi from the Germanic Elbe area settled in the region of the lower river. It is assumed that the Romans themselves settled them, or at least tolerated their settlement, in order to secure the territory on the eas…

Lesura

(92 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Moselle (Auson. Mos. 365), which flows into the Moselle near Bernkastel, modern Lieser. L. or Lesora is the name of a mountain in the Cevennes, modern Lozère (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 24,44; cf. Plin. HN 11, 240), Lesuros (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 48) a river on the east coast of Spain. There is also a Lieser in Carinthia (Austria). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography F. Cramer, s.v. L., RE 12, 2138 L. Weisgerber, Erläuterungen zur Karte der römerzeitlich bezeugten rheinischen Namen, in: Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter 23, 1958, 15.

Iuliacum

(169 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman posting station (It. Ant. 375,8; 378,7; Tab. Peut. 2,5) in Germania inferior on the road from Cologne to Tongeren at the crossing of the Rur, the modern Jülich. Epigraphically attested is [vic]ani [Iuliac]enses on the base of a Jupiter column from the early 2nd cent. AD [1. 195 no. 196]. Bricks of the legio VI Victrix, a dedication by one of its soldiers (CIL XIII 7869), and a funerary relief confirm the presence of the military. I. was the central place of a fertile settlement landscape with many villae rusticae. In the early 4th cent., I. was fortified with a …

Laur(i)um

(131 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Station in the territory of the Batavi (Tab. Peut. 2,3) on one of two roads between Ulpia Noviomagus and Lugdunum Batavorum (modern Katwijk), modern Woerden. Roman finds from about 50 to the 3rd cent. AD, a fort only from the Flavian period onwards (AD 69-96). Initially garrison of the cohors XV voluntariorum, after the middle of the 2nd cent. AD of the cohors III Breucorum. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography H. Schönberger, Die röm. Truppenlager der frühen und mittleren Kaiserzeit zw. Nordsee und Inn, in: BRGK 66, 1985, 439 B 6 J. K. Haalebos, Ausgrabungen in Woer…

Rigodulum

(115 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Town located on the right shore of the Mosella, present-day Riol; its name is Celtic. In AD 70, during the Batavian Revolt, it was the location of the battle between the entrenched Treveri under Iulius [II 43] Civilis and the Romans who had been brought there from Mogontiacum (Mainz) by Petilius [II 1] Cerialis. During this battle, the most prominent of the Belgae were taken prisoner by the Romans (cf. Tac. Hist. 4,71,4 f.). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. Keune, s. v. R., RE 1 A, 803 f.  H. Heubner, P. Co…

Tabernae

(247 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Township in the territory of the Nemetes Township in the territory of the Nemetes on the Roman road on the west bank of the Rhenus [2] (It. Ant. 355; Amm. 16,2,12; Not. Dign. Occ. 41,16; Tab. Peut. 3,3), modern Rheinzabern. There is evidence  of brickworks of the legions of upper Germania from about AD 45 until c. AD 80; a fort, however, is not certain. After the withdrawal of the military brickworks, everyday and fine ceramics were made there for civilian needs. In about the middle of the 2nd cent. AD, a factory was developed for t…

Kastel

(469 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman fort and vicus called Castellum Mattiacorum on the right bank of the Rhine, in the region of the Mattiaci, today Mainz-Kastel. A bridgehead of timber and earth had probably safeguarded the Rhine crossing from the time of Augustus. No later than the time of Tiberius (AD 14-37) a bridge on wooden piles spanned the river here ( c. 700 metres long). Its conversion to a stone bridge had perhaps already begun in the time of Claudius and Nero (AD 41-68). The military complex was probably destroyed in the year of four emperors (AD 69), but…

Marsigni

(61 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] German tribe settling ‘in the back of’, i.e. to the north or north-east of the Marcomanni and Quadi (Tac. Germ. 43,1). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography E. Schwarz, Germanische Stammeskunde, 1956, 164 G. Perl, Tacitus, Germania, in: J. Herrmann (Ed.), Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas bis zur Mitte des 1. Jahrtausends unserer Zeitrechnung, part 2, 1990, 245.

Segni

(78 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic people, mentioned only by Caesar (Caes. Gall. 6,32,1 f.) together with the Condrusi, between the Treveri and the Eburones, who assured him by means of an embassy in 53 BC, that they would not make common cause with the Germani on the left bank of the Rhine. Their presumed place of settlement was in the Luxemburgish and Belgian Ardennes. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s. v. S., RE 2 A, 1075 f.  Ch.B. Rüger, Germania inferior, 1968, 35 f.

Kalkriese

(495 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Kalkriese In the course of systematic archaeological investigations since 1987 in K. near Bramsche, district of Osnabrück, several Roman period finds have come to light, attesting to an extensive battleground between the Romans and the Germani (see illustration). By the end of 1997, a total of almost 3,000 objects had been recovered, among them some 1,300 coins and 1,600 ‘militaria’ in the broadest sense attributable to the Romans. In addition t…

Teutoni

(592 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe, settled, according to Pytheas [4] (Plin. HN 37,35) on the western coast of Jutland, probably neighbouring the Cimbri (= C.), in conjunction with whom they are often named (cf. Vell. Pat. 2,8), most scholars (cf. e.g. [1. 232 note 71]) therefore supposing that the two tribes migrated southwards together to the Danube (Ister, Istrus [1]), to Noricum (victory over Papirius [I 8] Carbo at Noreia in 113 BC) and thence through the region of the Helvetii to Gaul (Gallia).…

Semnones

(252 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Tribe of the Suebi between Albis (Elbe) and Viadua (Oder; Str. 7,1,3; Tac. Germ. 39; Tac. Ann. 2,45,1; Ptol. 3,1,22; 51), known to the Romans mainly through Tiberius’ campaign in AD 5 (R. Gest. div. Aug. 26; Vell. Pat. 2,106 f.). Given their size and cultic tradition, they regarded themselves as the oldest and most notable of the Suebi (Tac. Germ. 39; cf. [2.473-479]). As allies of Maroboduus, they fell to the Cherusci in AD 17 (Tac. Ann. 2,45,1), but were considered to be friendl…

Lemovii

(79 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Tribe on the Baltic Sea between the Oder and the Vistula (Tac. Germ. 44,1), neighbouring the Rugii. The version of the name is uncertain, and identification with other tribal names, passed down to us, for instance in Ptolemy, is hypothetical. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 5, 549 G. Perl, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griech. und lat. Quellen zur Frühgesch. Mitteleuropas bis zur Mitte des 1. Jt. u.Z., Teil 2, 1990, 249.

Usipetes

(202 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (also Usipi). Germanic tribe, presumably originally settled in the valley of the La(u)gona (modern Lahn), which was driven out by the Suebi in 58 BC. After crossing the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine) they drove out the Menapii in 56/5 BC and subsequently advanced farther south. In 55 BC Caesar annihilated the U. and the Tencteri; previously he had unlawfully captured the leaders of the two tribes, and this led to to severe reactions in Rome (Caes. Gall. 4,1-16; 6,35,5; Plut. Caesar 22,…

Suebi

(624 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] The Suebi, an association of Germanic tribes or groups of Germanic peoples, numerous and strong (Str. 4,3,4; 7,1,3), between the Rhenus [2] (Rhine), Istrus [2] (Danube), Albis (Elbe) and as far as the Mare Suebicum (Baltic Sea) area. The nucleus of their territory was Lusatia, later Saxony and Thuringia. Although first recorded in the 1st century BC (Caes. Gall. 1,37,3 f.;  cf. Tac. Germ. 2,2), their name had been coined by the 2nd century BC. The S. included e.g. the Marcomanni, …

Idistaviso

(99 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Site of a battle between Teutons under  Arminius and Romans under  Germanicus. The latter had led his troops over the sea to the river Ems and further on land via the river Weser in the summer of AD 16. The Romans won the battle in the I. plain ( campus) between the Weser and hilly terrain (Tac. Ann. 2,16,1) I. cannot be localized but is generally assumed to be in the surroundings of Porta Westfalica. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography B. Rappaport, s.v. I., RE 9, 903-905 E. Koestermann, Die Feldzüge des Germanicus, in: Historia 6, 1957, 429-479, esp. 425-455.

Nabalia

(181 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] River in the territory of the Batavi; in AD 70, a bridge over the N. was broken, so that Julius [II 43] Civilis and Petilius Cerialis could each stand on his respective side and negotiate at an appropriate distance (Tac. Hist. 5,26,1). The N. may be identifiable with the modern Lee between Lienden and Maurik in the Netherlands [3]. However, Tacitus may not have meant the river flowing between the warring pair at all, but may be referring only to a navalis (i.e. pons, ‘pontoon bridge’; [2]). It is also conceivable that Tacitus' N. is to be understood as the locat…

Tarodunum

(145 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oppidum (Ταρόδουνον; Taródounon). Celtic township at the end of the Höllental valley (Ptol. 2,11,30), modern Zarten in the Black Forest. There is evidence of a fortified site (approximately 200 ha) with murus Gallicus (scarcely traces of settlement), with a 2nd/1st century BC settlement area outside it (approximately 12-16 ha) (Celtic coins, products of gold smelting, a planchet, amphora sherds, a glass bracelet, ring beads). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography F. Fischer, Beiträge zur Kenntnis von T., i…

Icorigium

(159 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Roman road-station (It. Ant. 373,1: Egorigio; Tab. Peut. 3,1) where the Trier - Cologne road crossed the Kyll, modern Jünkerath. From the 1st cent. AD long-houses were built close to each other on both sides of the road, with the narrow side facing the street. Destroyed during the German invasions of the 3rd cent., protected in the late Constantinian period by a circular fortification (135 m diameter) with 13 round towers and two gateh…
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