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(160 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich
[English Version] (von lat. quattuor tempora, »vier Zeiten«) sind Bet-, Buß- (Buß- und Bettage), Fasten- (Fasten/Fastentage) und Danktage (Mittwoch, Freitag, Samstag, letzterer auch als Ordinationstermin) innerhalb von vier Wochen im Jahr. Zumeist lagen sie ungefähr zu Beginn der vier Jahreszeiten; sie haben ihre Wurzeln in Rom und sind seit dem 3.Jh. bezeugt. In der röm.-kath. Kirche im dt. Sprachgebiet sind seit 1975 v.a. die erste Woche im Advent, der Fastenzeit, die Woche vor Pfingsten und die…

Fendt, Leonhard

(294 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich
[German Version] (Jun 2, 1881, Baiershofen – Jan 9, 1957, Augsburg), Protestant theologian. He studied Catholic theology in Munich, was ordained a priest in ¶ 1905, chaplain, and received his doctorate in Straßburg, where he studied with A. Ehrhard. In 1911, he became sub-dean of the seminary in Dillingen, in 1915, professor of dogmatics and apologetics in Dillingen. In 1918, he converted to the Evangelical Church in Halle/Saale. In 1918, he became a Protestant pastor (Gommern, Magdeburg, Berlin), in 1934, professor of …

Passion Week/Holy Week

(422 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich
[German Version] During Holy Week, the last week of the six-week long Passiontide (within Catholicism: Easter time of penitence), Lutheran church services omit Alleluia (II), “Glory to God in the highest” ( Gloria in excelsis ; exception: Maundy Thursday [from Lat. mandatum; “command”]), and “Glory be to the Father.” In 4th-century Jerusalem, a liturgical re-enactment of the course of events of Jesus’ ¶ passion was initiated in Holy Week. On Maundy Thursday the institution of the Lord’s Supper (Eucharist: I) is remembered; in early Christ…

Ember Days (Rogation Days)

(173 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich
[German Version] are days of prayer, repentance (Days of prayer and repentance), fasting and thanksgiving (Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, latter also as ordination date) taking place in four weeks of the year. Usually held at the beginning of the four seasons, they have their origin in Rome and have been observed since the 3rd century. Since 1975 mainly the first week in Advent, Lent, the week before Pen-¶ tecost, and the first week of October have been set as optional ember weeks in the Roman Catholic church in German-speaking …

Youth Worship Services

(660 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich
[German Version] include a wide variety of worship services, all with young people as the intended congregation; they are often ecumenical. The first such services were held in connection with the Jugendbewegung; they were hailed as beneficial to both young people (Youth/Adolescence) and the community because of their focus on real life, but were also criticized as impeding the familiarization of young people with congregational worship on Sunday morning. This controversy is still alive in the debate over designing worship fo…

Worship Directories (Manuals)

(903 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich
[German Version] I. Terminology The worship directories of Protestant churches must always remember that worship takes place in the setting of the real world. In Germany a complete Lutheran worship directory (Ger. Agende; in Reformed churches usually called a Kirchenbuch or Liturgie) comprises the orders of worship for all public worship services, often along with forms for private confession (cf. Agende für evangelisch-lutherische Gemeinden II/3, 1993) and the blessing and optional anointing of the sick (cf. Agende für evangelisch-lutherische Gemeinden, III/4, 1994). ¶ II. Hi…

Good Friday

(372 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich
[German Version] (Fr. vendredi saint, Ger. Karfreitag from OHG kara, “lament”) commemorates the day of Jesus’ crucifixion (Cross/Crucifixion: III) and death; it is one of the most solemn Christian festivals. Fasting (III, 1) on Good Friday and Holy Saturday is attested at an early date. In the 4th century, there emerged elements of a Good Friday liturgy celebrated without a Eucharist. In Jerusalem the events surrounding the cross were retraced in a way that was geographically and temporally unique. Proce…

Feasts of Our Lord

(203 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich
[German Version] Christ's resurrection (II) is the fundamental fact celebrated in the Feasts of Our Lord, which emphasize particular accents in Jesus' saving work. Each Sunday is a “minor” Easter feast (Easter), and each year the “major” Easter feast constitutes the center of the church year. Easter is the oldest Christian feast (Feasts and festivals) and unfolds in the liturgical tradition in the time after Easter with Christ's Ascension and Pentecost, and in the time before Easter with the pre-E…


(1,408 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich | Bayer, Oswald
[German Version] I. Basics – II. History – III. Systematic Theology I. Basics Liturgical or congregational intercession (Prayer) is one of the primary duties of the church and the congregation (Worship). Such intercession lives on even when the powerful forget themselves and the helpless are forgotten. It transcends all (pious) wishes. With short texts of its own, the congregation takes part in ektenia and litany. The topical nature of intercession is augmented by the concretion, which dispenses with the …


(6,190 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt | Barth, Hans-Martin | Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich
1. Religious Aspects 1.1. General The term “prayer” has to do with a central fact in the divine-human relation, at the root of which is asking. Etymologically, Eng. “prayer” (unlike Ger. Gebet) goes back to OFr. preiere, “act of asking” or “demand,” and is akin to Lat. precaria, “a request.” These and related terms are probably related also to OEng. frignan, “inquire” (cf. Old Sax. fragon; Old Ger. pragan, frahen; Ger. fragen), and introduced in connection with Christianization for an act of the church ritual. The older theory that prayer developed out of magical sayings…

Feasts and Festivals

(7,156 words)

Author(s): Borgeaud, Philippe | Otto, Eckart | Veltri, Giuseppe | Schramm, Tim | Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. Early Christianity – V. Church History – VI. Liturgical and Practical Aspects I. Religious Studies The words “feast” and “festival” (cf. fête, festa, fiesta, Fest, etc.) derive from the Latin festus ( dies). They refer to the calendar and also evoke the notion of the divine: a feast day is a special day set aside and dedicated to a certain supernatural being. “Feast” or “festival” can therefore be understood as synonyms for religious celebrations. To speak,…