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Men, Alexander

(212 words)

Author(s): Wildt, Karin
[German Version] (Aleksandr; Jan 22, 1935, Moscow – Sep 9, 1990, Novaya Derevnya), Russian Orthodox archpriest, important theologian and catechist during Soviet rule. He wrote an extensive work on the history and philosophy of religion, and was an active journalist. His education was at first secular. During his studies in biology, he unofficially studied also theology and was ordained deacon in 1958 and priest in 1960. He served as priest at various churches in the vicinity of Moscow, and from 1968 at the church of Novaya Derevnya. On ¶ Sep 9, 1990, he was murdered on his way to th…

Diptychs

(285 words)

Author(s): Wildt, Karin
[German Version] (Gk δίς/ dís and πτύσσειν/ ptýssein, “twice folded”) are two writing tablets made of wood, metal or ivory that can be folded together. Their wax-coated interiors were used for notes in both sacred and secular contexts. Diptychs were decorated with the images of prominent personalities, particularly mythological scenes and Christian iconography. Along with diptychs, …

Oktoechos

(192 words)

Author(s): Wildt, Karin
[English Version] (griech. ο᾿κτω´ηχος, »Achttonbuch«), auch Parakletike´ (Liturgische Bücher: II.). Im orth. Ritus ist jedem der acht Kirchentöne (η῎χοι/ē´choi) ein Zyklus von Texten für alle Sonn- und Wochentage zugeordnet, der am zweiten Sonntag nach Pfingsten beginnt und bis zum fünften Sonntag der Großen Fastenzeit reicht. Dabei hat jeder Wochentag ein in jedem Ton neu variiertes Thema, wobei die Sonntage dem Thema »Auferstehung« gewidmet sind. Diese Texte bilden den Hauptinhalt des O. O. ist zudem die Bez.…

Michael VIII Palaeologus

(242 words)

Author(s): Wildt, Karin
[German Version] (1224/1225, Asia Minor – Dec 11, 1282, Thrace), emperor of Byzantium from 1259/1261 to 1282, founder of the Palaeologus dynasty. In December 1246, Michael became governor of Melnik and Serrhai; 1252/1253, high constable; 1258, megas dux and despot. He was proclaimed emperor on Jan 1, 1259 in place of the legitimate heir to the throne, John IV Laskares. Michael Palaeologus distinguished himself by military victories (in 1259 over the western alliance near Pelagonia; in 1262 and 1282 in Bulgaria; in 1264 in Epiros), …

Oktoechos

(203 words)

Author(s): Wildt, Karin
[German Version] (Gk ὀκτώηχος, “Book of eight tones”), also Paracleticē (Liturgical books: II). In the Orthodox liturgy, for each of the eight church tones (ἤχοι/ ḗchoi) a cycle of texts is prescribed for all Sundays and weekdays; it begins on the second Sunday after Easter and continues to the fifth Sunday of the Great Fast. It provides for each weekday a fresh theme in each tone, Sundays being devoted to the theme “Resurrection.” These texts form the main contents of the Octoechos. Octoechos also denotes this time, w…