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NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK

(4,951 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin
(1018-1092), vizier of two Saljuq sultans, rose from a relatively lowly position in the bureaucracy of the provincial governor of Balḵ (Balkh) to become the de facto ruler over a vast empire, with a final apotheosis as the archetypal good vizier in the world of Islam. NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK, Abu ʿAli Ḥasan b. ʿAli b. Esḥāq Ṭusi (1018-92) celebrated vizier of two Saljuq sultans, Ālp Arslān (r. 1063-73) and his son Malekšāh (r. 1073-92). He held the honorifics Neẓām-al-Molk (“order of state”), Ḡiāṯ-al-Dawla (“pillar of government”), Qawām-al-Din (“mai…
Date: 2022-09-15

Abdāl Beg

(834 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin
Abdāl Beg Didih (d. after 917/1511) was influential in early Ṣafavid politics. There is some confusion in the sources as to his exact name, title, and rank: he is referred to variously as Abdāl Beg, Abdāl ʿAlī Beg, Abdāl Beg Qūrchībāshī, Didih Beg Ṭālish, and Didih Beg Qūrchībāshī. Abdāl Beg, of the Dhū l-Qadrlū tribal group (uymāq), was one of the seven Qizilbāsh (Kızılbaş) amīrs ( ahl al-ikhtiṣāṣ, lit., people in authority) close to the leadership of the Ṣafavid Ṣūfī order before the founding of the eponymous state. In 898/1493, Sulṭān ʿAlī Ṣafavī, head of th…
Date: 2023-11-24

Dābūyids

(1,507 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin
The Dābūyid dynasty of ispahbads (local princes) ruled over the northern Iranian province of Ṭabaristān until they were deposed in 144/761 by the ʿAbbāsids. Centred in Sārī, the reign of the Dābūyids coincided with the latter part of the Sāsānid’s reign (554–69) over neighbouring Iranian territory and that of the Umayyads (41–132/661–749) who were the first Muslim dynasty. There is a paucity of information on the beginnings of Dābūyid rule but what little information is available is provided primarily by the two local histories of Ṭabaristān by Ibn Isf…
Date: 2021-07-19

Aḥmadīlīs

(4,039 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin
The Aḥmadīlīs were local rulers of Marāgha, the area around Rūyīn-diz, and parts of Azerbaijan from around 516/1122 to 617/1220, or shortly thereafter. They held Marāgha until 605/1209, and were still in control of Rūyīn-diz in 618/1221, when the Mongols sacked the region (Minorsky, Marāg̲h̲a, 501). The Aḥmadīlīs are initially mentioned as atabegs, or tutors, to young princes of the Saljūq dynasty. But the gradual decline of Saljūq suzerainty in the sixth/twelfth century also entailed the emergence of former atabegs, land grant (iqṭāʿ) holders, and military notables as semi-i…
Date: 2021-07-19

Khurshīd

(945 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin
Khurshīd (also, Khūrshīd) b. Dādburzmihr b. Farrukhān b. Dābūya b. Gīl b. Gīlānshāh (r. 123–44/740–61) was the last and best-known ruler of the Dābūyid dynasty of ispahbads (local princes) that ruled the northern Iranian province of Ṭabaristān. He was deposed by the armies of the ʿAbbāsids (r. 132–923/750–1517). Khurshīd was a minor when his father Dādburzmihr (r. 110–23/728–41) passed away. His uncle Farrukhān-i Kūchik ruled as regent until Khurshīd attained majority at the age of fourteen. Farrukhān-i Kūchik’s sons conspired to overthrow hi…
Date: 2021-07-19

Wut̲h̲ūḳ al-Dawla

(882 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin
, Mīrzā Ḥasan Ḵh̲ān, homme d’Etat persan, homme de lettres, membre du cabinet à plusieurs reprises et deux fois premier ministre, né d’une famille éminente de propriétaires terriens en avril 1875 à Téhéran où il mourut en février 1951. Son grandpère ¶ paternel, Mīrzā Muḥammad Ḳawām al-dawla occupa, entre divers autres, le poste de gouverneur du Ḵh̲urāsān en 1855 et d’Iṣfahān en 1872, et son oncle maternel était le constitutionnaliste d’esprit réformiste Mīrzā ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān Amīn al-dawla (1844-1904), principal ministre de Muẓaffar al-dīn S̲h̲āh Ḳād̲j̲ār [ q.v.]. Le jeune frère de Wut…

Wut̲h̲ūḳ al-Dawla

(822 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin
, Mīrzā Ḥasan K̲h̲ān, Persian statesman, belle-lettrist, several times cabinet member and twice prime minister, b. in Tehran April 1875, to a prominent landowning family, and d. there February 1951. His paternal grandfather, Mīrzā Muḥammad Ḳawām al-Dawla held, among other positions, the governorship of K̲h̲urāsān in 1855 and Iṣfahān in 1872, and his maternal uncle was the reformist-minded constitutionalist Mīrzā ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Amīn al-Dawla (1844-1904), chief minister to Muẓaffar al-Dīn S̲h̲āh Ḳād̲j̲ār [ q.v.]. Wut̲h̲ūḳ al-Dawla’s younger brother Ḳawām al-Salṭana (1876-…

Afrāsiyābids

(1,906 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin
The Afrāsiyābids (r. 750–60/1349–59), also known as Banū Afrāsiyāb or Āl-i Afrāsiyāb, as well as Chalābīs or Chalāvīs, were a family of ispahbads (military chiefs or local princes), from Māzandarān, a northwestern Iranian province on the Caspian coast. Their political influence grew in the vacuum that followed the demise of the Ilkhānids (r. 654–754/1256–1353) in Iran. They emerged as rulers of Āmul and its surroundings in 750/1349, when a scion of the family murdered the sitting ruler, the Bāwandid Fakhr al-Dawla Ḥa…
Date: 2021-07-19

Ilyāsids

(2,948 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin
The Ilyāsids were a minor ruling house that controlled parts of the Iranian province of Kirmān from 320/932 to 357/968. They rose to power in the vacuum that was left behind with the deterioration of Ṣaffārid rule (r. 247–393/861–1003) in south-eastern Iran. In 288/900–1, the province had fallen to the Sāmānid Ismāʿīl b. Aḥmad (r. 279–95/892–907), who installed as governor the Ṣaffārid Ṭāhir b. Muḥammad b. ʿAmr (r. 287–96/900–9). Contending brigands and runaway armies competed for the control of …
Date: 2021-07-19

Abū al-Ḥasan Khān Īlchī Shīrāzī

(4,557 words)

Author(s): Yavari, Neguin | Isabel Miller | Translated by Daryoush Mohammad Poor
Abū al-Ḥasan Khān Īlchī Shīrāzī (1190–1262/1776–1846), was a famous statesman who served as foreign minister for the Qājār state. His eventful and controversial life resulted in opposing opinions being expressed about him in the sources and various conflicting judgements. Abū al-Ḥasan's father, Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī, was a secretary ( munshī) at the court of Nādir Shāh Afshār. Nādir Shāh ordered his execution, but was himself murdered and so Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī's life was saved. Thereafter, Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī joined the service of Karīm Khān Za…
Date: 2021-06-17