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Yeñi ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊lar

(861 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, the Young Ottomans, a political grouping which strove for the establishment of a constitutional régime in the Ottoman empire. The group was formed in 1865 by a group of six young civil servants who had been trained in the new government offices created under the Tanẓīmāt , ¶ and specifically in the Translation Bureau of the Porte. Some of the leading members of the group, such as Nami̊ḳ Kemāl [ q.v.], also pioneered modern journalism in the empire. The Young Ottomans opposed the leading statesmen of their day, Meḥmed Amīn ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a and Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a [ q.vv.], accusing them of establish…

Niyāzī Bey

(547 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, Aḥmed (1873-1912), Young-Turk officer and one of the protagonists of the Ottoman ¶ constitutional revolution of 1908. Niyāzī hailed from Resen (he was called Resnelī, i.e. “from Resen”), and was an Albanian by birth. He went to military rus̲h̲dī and iʿdādī schools in Monastir (Bitola) before entering the military academy ( Ḥarbiyye ) in Istanbul, where he graduated as a second lieutenant in 1896. After his graduation he saw service in the European provinces of the Empire and he made a name for himself during the battle of B…

S̲h̲ükrü (i.e. S̲h̲ükrī) Bey

(481 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, Aḥmed (1875-1926), son of Ibrāhīm, Young Turk politician, was born in Kastamonu, near the Black Sea, into a poor family. S̲h̲ükrü graduated from the teachers’ training college in Istanbul and started out on a career in education, serving both as a teacher himself and as director of education. He joined the underground opposition movement of the Committee of Union and Progress ( Ittiḥād we Teraḳḳī Ḏj̲emʿiyyeti [ q.v.]) before the constitutional revolution of July 1908. After the revolution, he served as the district governor of Siroz [ q.v.] and spent some time at the home office,…

Yüzelli̇li̇kler

(267 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, t., literally, “the 150 [undesirables]”. During the peace negotiations between the Allies and Turkey at Lausanne in 1923, Great Britain demanded that a general amnesty in Turkey should form part of the final settlement. The British were concerned that, otherwise, those inhabitants of Turkey who had been opposed to Muṣṭafā Kemāl and his nationalist movement in Anatolia would be persecuted. The Turkish delegation would not agree to an amnesty without exceptions, but it did not have at its disposal a l…

Murād V

(702 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, thirty-third Ottoman Sultan, who ruled for ninety-three days, from 31 May until 7 September 1876. He was born on 21 September 1840, as the eldest son of Sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd [ q.v.]. According to the Ottoman system of succession, he was crown prince during the rule of his uncle, Sultan ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (1861-76 [ q.v.]). The latter, however, intended to change the line of succession in favour of his own offspring. Therefore, he deprived Murād of all influence in public affairs. Partly as a result of the way he was treated by his uncle, Murād, who …

Res̲h̲īd Pas̲h̲a, Muṣṭafā

(1,997 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
(1800-1858), Ottoman diplomat, statesman and reformer. Res̲h̲īd was born, the son of a financial clerk in Istanbul, on 13 March 1800, but his family originally hailed from Kastamonu. His father died in 1810, after which he grew up under the protection of his uncle, Ispartali̊ Seyyid Pas̲h̲a. He studied at a medrese , but did not graduate (i.e. he did not get an id̲j̲āza [ q.v.]). Thereafter, he was trained within the scribal institution. Res̲h̲īd took part in the campaign against the Greek insurgents in 1821, as seal-keeper of the commander-in-chief, Seyyid ʿ…

S̲h̲eref, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(552 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
(1853-1925), late Ottoman historian and statesman. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān S̲h̲eref was born in Istanbul, the son of a chief clerk at the Imperial Arsenal ( Ṭopk̲h̲āneyi ʿāmire ), whose family hailed from Safranbolu in northwestern Anatolia. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān S̲h̲eref graduated from the famous Galatasaray Lycée in 1873. After this he taught at several different establishments, ¶ from the Mak̲h̲red̲j̲-i Aḳlām (a college for civil servants which existed between 1864 and 1876) to the Dār al-Fünūn (University), which was re-opened in 1900, having been closed si…

Teraḳḳī-Perver D̲j̲umhūriyyet Fi̊r-Ḳasi̊

(396 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
(Progressive Republican Party), the first opposition party of the Turkish Republic. It was founded on 17 November 1924 by a number of leading members of Muṣṭafā Kemāl (Atatürk)’s People’s Party (K̲h̲alḳ Fi̊rḳasi̊). Among the founders of the party were a number of military and civilian figures who had played a leading role in the national resistance movement out of which the republic was ¶ born: Kāẓi̊m Ḳarabekir (the party chairman), ʿAlī Fuʾād (Cebesoy), Refʾet (Bele), ʿAdnān (Adivar) and Ḥüseyin Raʾūf (Orbay [ q.v.]). The reasons for their leaving the People’s Party were bot…

Ṣabāḥ al-Dīn

(554 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E. J.
(«Prens» Sabahettin) (1877-1948), ¶ théoricien politique ottoman tardif. Sabāḥ al-dīn naquit à Istanbul, comme fils aîné de Dāmād (gendre impérial) Maḥmūd Ḏj̲elāl al-dīn Pas̲h̲a. Sa mère était Senīḥa Sultan, fille puinée du Sultan ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd IL II reçut une éducation privée. Lorsque son père se réfugia à Paris en 1899, Ṣabāḥ al-dīn et son frère plus jeune Luṭf Allāh l’accompagnèrent. Il se révéla comme l’un des principaux publicistes et politiciens Jeunes Turcs de l’émigration. Grâce à la fortune paternelle, il devint bientôt un riv…

Ṣādi̊ḳ Rifʿat Pas̲h̲a

(691 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
Meḥmed , Ottoman statesman and diplomat (1807-57). He was born in Istanbul, the only son of a very wealthy family. His father was Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Bey, the governor of the Ottoman cannon foundries ( Ṭopk̲h̲āne ). Ṣādi̊ḳ Rifʿat received an education in the palace school, serving his final year in the Enderūn-i Humāyūn Ḵh̲azīne Odasi̊ (the imperial treasury). Thereafter, he was placed in the correspondence department ( Mektūbī Ḳalemi ) of the Grand Vizierate, as an assistant clerk. In 1824 he was promoted to the rank of k̲h̲wād̲j̲a (master) and in 1828 he becam…

Ṣabāḥ al-Dīn

(565 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
("Prens" Sabahattin) (1877-1948), late Ottoman political theorist. Ṣabāh al-Dīn was born in Istanbul, the elder son of Dāmād (imperial son-in-law) Maḥmūd Ḏj̲elāl al-Dīn Pas̲h̲a. His mother was Senīḥa Sulṭān, a younger sister of Sultan ʿAbd al-Hamīd II. He was educated privately. When his father fled to Paris in 1899, Ṣabāḥ al-Dīn and his younger brother Luṭf Allāh accompanied him. Ṣabāḥ al-Dīn came to the fore as one of the leading Young Turk emigré publicists and politicians. Backed by his father’s wealth, he soon became a serious com…

YÜZelli̇li̇kler

(291 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
(t.), littéralement les «150 [indésirables]». Pendant les négociations de paix entre les Alliés et les Turcs à Lausanne en 1923, la Grande Bretagne demanda qu’une amnistie générale en Turquie fasse partie de la décision finale. Les Britanniques craignaient que, sans cela, les habitants de Turquie qui s’étaient opposés en Anatolie à Muṣṭafā Kemal et à son mouvement nationaliste, soient persécutés. La délégation turque refusa son agrément pour une amnistie qui ne connaîtrait pas d’exceptions, mais elle…

Niyāzī Bey

(508 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, Aḥmad (1873-1912), officier Jeune Turc qui fut l’un des protagonistes de la révolution ¶ constitutionnelle de 1908 en Turquie. Il était natif de Resen (d’où sa nisba de Resneli) et de naissance albanaise. Il fit ses études aux écoles militaires rus̲h̲diyye et iʿdādiyye de Monastir (Bitola) avant d’entrer, à Istanbul, à l’Académie militaire ( Ḥarbiyye) d’où il sortit comme sous-lieutenant en 1896. Il servit dans les provinces européennes de l’empire et se distingua dans la bataille de Bes̲h̲pmar, durant la guerre grécoottomane de 1897. Il fut promu…

S̲h̲eref, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(521 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
(1853-1925), historien et homme d’Etat ottoman des derniers temps. Il naquit à Istanbul d’un secrétaire en chef à l’Arsenal impérial ( ṭopk̲h̲āne-yi ʿāmire) dont la famille provenait de Safranbolu, en Anatolie du Nord-ouest. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān prit ses diplômes au célèbre lycée de Galatasaray en 1873. Il enseigna ensuite dans plusieurs établissements, du Mak̲h̲red̲j̲-i Aḳlām (collège de fonctionnaires civils qui exista de 1864 à 1876) au Dār al-Fünūn (Université) qui fut rouvert en 1900 après avoir été fermé en 1880. Pendant tout le règne de ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II (1876-1909) [ q.v.]) il fut …

Teraḳḳī-perver Ḏj̲umhūriyyet Fi̊rk-ḳasi̊

(415 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E. J.
(parti républicain progressiste), premier parti d’opposition de la République turque. Il fut fondé le 17 novembre 1924 par un certain nombre de membres dirigeants du Parti de Muṣṭafā Kemāl (Atatürk) (Khalḳ Fi̊rḳasi̊). Parmi les fondateurs du parti figuraient un certain nombre de civils et de militaires qui avaient joué un rôle important dans le mouvement de résistance nationale grâce auquel la république était née: Kāẓi̊m Ḳarabekir (chef du parti), ʿAlī Fuʾād (Ceseboy), Refʾet (Bele), ʿAdnān (Adivar) et Ḥüseyin Raʾūf (Orbay [ q.v.]). Les raisons pour lesquelles ils quittèren…

Yeñi ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊lar

(888 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, les Jeunes Ottomans, groupement politique qui lutta pour l’instauration d’un régime constitutionnel dans l’Empire Ottoman. ¶ Ce groupe fut créé en 1865 par six jeunes fonctionnaires qui avaient été formés dans les nouveaux services de l’administration gouvernementale fondés sous les Tanẓīmāt, et spécifiquement dans le bureau de traduction de la Porte. Certains des membres éminents de ce groupe, comme Nami̊ḳ Kemāl [ q.v.], furent aussi les pionniers du journalisme moderne dans l’empire. Les Jeunes Ottomans s’opposèrent aux hommes d’État en place de leur ép…

Ṣadi̊ḳ Rifʿat Pas̲h̲a

(654 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E. J.
, Meḥmed, homme d’Etat et diplomate ottoman (1807-57), il naquit à Istanbul, fils unique d’une famille très riche. Son père était Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Bey, gouverneur des fonderies de canons ottomanes ( ṭopk̲h̲āné). Ṣādi̊k Rif ʿat fut éduqué dans une école du palais, où il servit en terminale à l’ Enderūn-i Hümāyūn Ḵh̲azīne Odasi̊ (le Trésor impérial). Il fut ensuite nommé en qualité d’employé adjoint au département du courrier ( Mektūbī Ḳalemi) du Grand Vizirat. En 1824, il fut promu k̲h̲ w ād̲j̲a (maître), et en 1828 devint employé débutant au bureau d’arrivée du courrier. Il attira l’atte…

Murād V

(700 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, trente-troisième sultan ottoman, qui régna pendant quatre-vingt-treize jours, du 31 mai au 7 septembre 1876. Fils aîné du sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd [ q.v.], il naquit le 21 septembre 1840. Conformément au système successoral ottoman, il fut héritier présomptif pendant le règne de son oncle, le sultan ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (1861-76 [ q.v.]). Ce dernier prétendit cependant modifier l’ordre de succession en faveur de sa propre descendance; c’est pourquoi il priva Murād de toute influence sur les affaires publiques. En raison, pour une part, de la façon don…

Res̲h̲īd Pas̲h̲a, Muṣṭafā

(1,958 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
(1800-1858), diplomate, homme d’Etat et réformateur ottoman. Il naquit le 13 mars 1800 d’un fonctionnaire des finances d’Istanbul, mais sa famille était originaire de Kastamonu. Son père mourut en 1810, et il fut dès lors élevé par son oncle Ispartali Seyyid Pas̲h̲a. Il étudia en medrese, mais n’en obtint pas l’ id̲j̲āza [ q.v.]. Par la suite, il se forma à l’école des secrétaires. Il prit part à la campagne contre les insurgés grecs en 1821, comme porte-sceau du commandant en chef Sayyid ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. Pendant cette campagne, il constata de ses ye…

S̲h̲ükrü (c.-à.-d. S̲h̲ükrī) Bey

(472 words)

Author(s): Zürcher, E.J.
, Aḥmed (18751926), fils d’Ibrāhīm, politicien Jeune Turc né à Kastamonu, près de la mer Noire, dans une famille modeste. S̲h̲ükrü prit ses diplômes au Collège de formation des maîtres à Istanbul et entreprit une carrière dans l’éducation, à la fois comme enseignant et comme directeur. Il rejoignit le mouvement clandestin du Comité Union et Progrès ( Ittiḥād we Teraḳḳī Ḏj̲emʿiyyeti [ q.v.]) avant la révolution constitutionnelle de juillet 1908. Par la suite, il fut gouverneur du district de Siroz [ q.v.] et passa quelque temps au Ministère de l’Intérieur, mais gagna le devan…
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