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Light

(431 words)

Author(s): Zachhuber, Johannes
[German Version] The philosophico-theological use of light as a metaphor derives from religious light symbolism (light as a symbol [Symbols/Symbol theory: I] of the holy, the divine, salvation, bliss, life, deliverance, light and darkness), but the two are not identical. In the former, light suggests the fundamental structure of being and the possibility of knowing it (Epistemology). Parmenides described the way to knowledge of the truth as a journey from night into the light; light becomes a metaphor for knowledge of true being. In Plato's metaphor …

Topic

(360 words)

Author(s): Zachhuber, Johannes

Immortality

(3,692 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Zachhuber, Johannes | Heiligenthal, Roman | Hartmut Rosenau | Thiede, Werner | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Christianity – IV. Taoism I. Religious Studies It is inherent in the conditio humana that we are forced to master everyday situations and withstand critical moments. To do so, members of every society need handy codes of conduct to survive the manifold crises. Life and death, time and eternity, meaning and meaninglessness mark such critical moments in both individual lives and the course of the world. The responses of cultures and religions to these questions document our yearning for immortality. 1. Models We …

Reception

(2,613 words)

Author(s): Zachhuber, Johannes | Pirson, Dietrich | Pemsel-Maier, Sabine
[German Version]

Essence

(1,160 words)

Author(s): Rese, Friederike | Zachhuber, Johannes
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion I. Philosophy Essence, from Lat. essentia, “being, essence,” is an abstract noun formed in imitation of Gk ousia, “be…

Time

(10,035 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Koch, Klaus | Frey, Jörg | Zachhuber, Johannes | Mesch, Walter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. General. The words for time denote in different languages, according to their etymological derivation and symbolic semantic field, different ways of dividing natural and cultural forms of progression and sequences of events into parts separated and distinguished from one another. The German word for time,

Soul

(8,968 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Seebass, Horst | Gödde, Susanne | Necker, Gerold | Rudolph, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. Phenomenology Western, Christian connotations of the concept of t…

Divine Essence

(988 words)

Author(s): Zachhuber, Johannes | Dietz, Walter R.
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Dogmatics …

Glorification

(360 words)

Author(s): Zachhuber, Johannes
[German Version] The notion that the glorification ( glorificatio) of God is the goal of creation is a fundamental assumption, particularly in Calvin's theology (cf. the beginning of the Geneva Catechism of 1542). Accordingly, the final locus of Reformed dogmatics deals with glorification ( De glorificatione). The perfection of human beings is, thus, equated with joining in creation's praise of God. This concept is based on, first, the Augustinian and medieval notion of the fruitio Dei as the appropriate fulfillment of the human desire for God, and second, the biblical…

End of the World

(2,438 words)

Author(s): Winter, Franz | Zager, Werner | Zachhuber, Johannes | Evers, Dirk
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Bible

Rhetoric

(4,336 words)

Author(s): Schirren, Thomas | Mitchell, Margaret M. | Ueding, Gert | Zachhuber, Johannes | Helmer, Karl | Et al.
[German Version] I. Antiquity 1. Greek. The expression ῥητορικὴ τέχνη/ rhētorikḗ téchnē was coined by the Sophistic school, which created the theoretical foundatio…

Macrina, the Younger

(172 words)

Author(s): Zachhuber, Johannes
[German Version] (c. 327, Neocaesarea – 379, Annisi) was the eldest daughter of a wealthy Christian family from Cappadocia. She was named after her grandmother, Macrina the Elder, who introduced her family to the teachings of Gregory Thaumaturgus. After the death of her fiancé…

Origins

(1,438 words)

Author(s): Horyna, Břetislav | Wesche, Tilo | Zachhuber, Johannes
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy – III. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies The origins (Ger. Ursprung) of something are an event or a set of events which, as a cause and in causal relationship with one another, constitute the initial shape of further events that ensue from the origins. Accordingly, the concept of origins must be understood on two levels of explication: (1) origins as a temporal conception in which the chronological beginning as well as the chronological proximity of origins and of that which stems from the origins is determined; (2) origins as an ontological (or metaphysical) c…

Sun

(2,816 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Cancik, Hubert | Schroer, Silvia | Wallraff, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The sun is omnipresent; in the phenomenal world, it marks and accentuates the course of our chronological and spatial lifeworld. The range of associated structures, interpretations, and ambivalences (light and dark, life-giving and life-consuming) makes it only natural that the sun should acquire religious symbolisms and orientations in many ways and in many areas: (1) orientation in time (annual calendrical cycle, identification of sacral seasons and hours of the …

Transience

(947 words)

Author(s): Zachhuber, Johannes
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Since the beginnings of Greek philosophy, the experience of transience, expressed in the dyad “generation and corruption, coming into being and passing away” ( génesis, phthorá

Wesen

(1,051 words)

Author(s): Rese, Friederike | Zachhuber, Johannes
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Das W. (substantivierter Infinitiv des ahd. Verbs »wesan«, nhd. »sein«) meint das Charakteristische einer Sache: das, was eine Sach…

Zeit/Zeitvorstellungen

(8,837 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Koch, Klaus | Frey, Jörg | Zachhuber, Johannes | Mesch, Walter | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich 1.AllgemeinDie äquivalenten Wörter für Zeit (Z.) bez. in den unterschiedlichen Sprachen je nach etym. Herkunft und symbolischem Bedeutungsfeld verschiedene Weisen einer Einteilung der natürlichen und kulturellen Verlaufsformen und Geschehensabläufe in voneinander abgegrenzte und qualifizierte Teile. Das dt. Wort Z. leitet sich von ahd. zīt, »abteilen, aufteilen, zumessen« (von der Wurzel *dāi, »teilen«), her und impliziert die generelle Einteilungsfunktion von Zeitvorstellungen (Zv.) als Ordnungsfaktoren v…

Rhetorik

(4,079 words)

Author(s): Schirren, Thomas | Mitchell, Margaret M. | Ueding, Gert | Zachhuber, Johannes | Helmer, Karl | Et al.
[English Version] I. Antike 1.Griechisch Der Begriff ρ῾ητορικη` τε´χn̆η/rhētorikē´ téchnē ist eine Schöpfung der Sophistik, die damit die theoretische Grundlage für eine zumal im griech. Kulturraum als Agon verstandene Kommunikationsform schuf, nämlich das Auftreten eines oder mehrerer sprachlich agierender Kommunikatoren vor einem Publikum. Kulturelle Voraussetzungen solcher Performanzereignisse (Sprechakt/Sprechhandlung) bilden der Agon von Dichtern, aber auch der Rechtsstreit, der schon bei Homer (…

Seele

(8,008 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Seebass, Horst | Gödde, Susanne | Necker, Gerold | Rudolph, Ulrich | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich, religionsgeschichtlich 1.PhänomenologischDie christl.-abendländischen Konnotationen des durch die Forschung von außen an religionsgesch. Befunde herangetragenen Seelenbegriffs sind am weitesten auszuschließen, wenn man S. als Prinzip wahrnehmbarer oder kulturell für wahrnehmbar gehaltener Lebensäußerungen versteht, die allerdings selten unter einem gemeinsamen Oberbegriff zusammengefaßt werden. Deshalb ist es sinnvoll, von einer Vielzahl von S. zu spr…

Wesen Gottes

(899 words)

Author(s): Zachhuber, Johannes | R. Dietz, Walter
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch Bedenkt man, daß philos. Theorien vom Wesen das Interesse zugrunde liegt, ein ontologisches Einheitsprinzip angesichts der Erfahrung von Vielheit und Veränderlichkeit einzuführen, kann die Rede vom W.G. erstaunen, da in Gott eine solche Differenz nicht vorauszusetzen ist. Tatsächlich kommt es einer Traditionslinie darauf an, vom W.G. so zu reden, daß gerade dessen absolute Einfachheit (Einheit/Einzigkeit/Einfachheit Gottes) und insofern Gottes schlechthin…
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