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Spartolus

(184 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Delian League (Σπάρτωλος/ Spárt ōlos). The most significant city in the territory of the Bottiaei, hard to locate exactly, first mentioned in the Athenian Tribute Lists (ATL 1, 412 f.), initially with two talents, from 434/3 BC with three. S. seceded from Athens in 432 (Thuc. 1,58,1) and participated on the side of its opponents in the Peloponnesian War. In the summer of 429 the Athenians suffered a defeat at S.; the following wint…

Galaei

(104 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Γαλαῖοι; Galaîoi). The G., who appear in the Athenian tribute lists from 436/435 BC, were the citizens of a town on the western coast of Sithonia, close to the modern Neos Marmaras, referred to by Herodotus (Hdt. 7,122), probably erroneously, as Galepsos in his description of Xerxes' campaign. In 432, the G. seceded from Athens and resettled in the enlarged city of Olynthus, but their town was recaptured by Athens before 425, and declared independent in the peace of Nicias of 421. After that, the sources no longer mention it. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt,…

Anthemous

(112 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἀνθεμοῦς; Anthemoûs). Region with both a river (modern Vasilikiotikos) and town (near the modern Galatista) of the same name in the north of the  Chalcidice peninsula. It was Macedonian in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,99,6), and, in the 4th cent. BC, left for a time to the Chalcidian Confederacy (Xen. Hell. 5,2,13); it supplied a cavalry unit to Alexander's army (Arr. An. 2,9,3). According to inscriptions, the town continued to exist into the imperial age. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, L. D. Loukopoulou, Recherches sur les marches orient…

Polemocrates

(89 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Πολεμοκράτης/ Polemokrátēs). [German version] [1] Granted lands in Chalcidice by Philip II Under Philip [4] II P. received estates in the newly conquered region in the west of the Chalcidian peninsula; this estate as well as the one which his son Coenus [1], the future general of Alexander [4] the Great, had received from Philip, was later ratified by king Cassander and declared free from tax (Syll.3 332). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, Une donation du roi Lysimaque, 1988. [German version] [2] see Alexanor; Machaon see Alexanor; Machaon

Mende

(224 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Delian League (Μένδη; Méndē). Town on the western coast of Pallene [4] near the modern Kalandra on the Chalcidian Peninsula, a colony of Eretria [1] which owed its blossoming from the 6th century BC to a famous wine and the profits from its export. Images on the town's coins, which were minted from as early as the 6th century, also make reference to the wine. In the Athenian tribute quota lists, M. is r…

Gigonus

(113 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Γίγωνος; Gígōnos). The town situated close to Cape Gigonis, that is probably to be found north-west of modern Nea Kallikrateia on the west coast of the Chalcidian Peninsula, is mentioned in Hdt. 7,123,2 with regard to the campaign of Xerxes; G. is also mentioned in the Athenian tribute quota lists between 434/3 and 421 BC and for 432 as the line of communication of an Athenian army marching from Macedonia to Poteidaia (Thuc. 1,61,5; 62,2), then however, like the cape, it is only mentioned again in the geographical literature. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography F. Papazo…

Therambos

(105 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Θεράμβως; Therámbōs). T. is mentioned in Hdt. 7,123,1 as the southeasternmost city on the (Pallene [4] peninsula (Scyl. 66: Thrambēís; Steph. Byz. s. v. Θράμβος), presumably in the area of modern Paliuri. T. appears in the Athenian tribute lists, initially together with Scione and from 446/5 BC separately, with the constant contribution of 1000 drachmai (ATL 1, 284 f.) and seems to have remained in the Delian League until the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. The further history of T. is not known; T. may have been reincorporated into Scione. Zahrnt, Michael (Kie…

Tharyps

(120 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Θάρυψ/ Tháryps). The T. mentioned in 429 BC as being under the guardianship of a Sabylinthus (Thuc. 2,80,6) is the first undoubtedly historical king of the Molossi. According to Plut. Pyrrhus 1,4 he made a name for himself as the first Molossian ruler by providing the cities with Greek customs, education and benign laws; according to Just. Epit. 17,3,9-13 he was raised in Athens and was the first to institute laws, a council, annually changing officials and a rei publicae forma ('state structure'). Accordingly, the monarch-led federal state may have been c…

Mecyberna

(178 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Μηκύβερνα/ Mēkýberna). M., which is located about 20 stadia east of Olynthus on the northern coast of the Gulf of Torone, is first mentioned in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 150 and in the context of Xerxes' campaign (Hdt. 7,122). After 446 BC it is recorded in the Athenian tribute lists. In 432, M. revolted against Athens, was dissolved as a pólis and lost its population to Olynthus, but was reconquered before 425. In the ‘Peace of Nicias’ ( Peloponnesian War), its independence from Olynthus was establi…

Sithones

(90 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σιθῶνες/ Sithônes, Σίθωνες/ Síthōnes). The S., counted by Str. 7a,1,11 as a group of the Edones in Thrace, may have been the original inhabitants of Sithonia and its hinterland, driven back by Chalcidians from Euboea [1] colonising the region. Their relationship to the Sithoni mentioned in Plin. HN 4,41 on the coast of the Black Sea is unknown. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, Actes de vente de la Chalcidique centrale, 1988, 52 f.  Id., Grecs et barbares dans les cités de l'arrière-pays de la Chalcidique, in: Klio 71, 1989, 60-65.

Thyssus

(124 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Θυσσός/ Thyssós). City on the western coast of the Acte peninsula (Chalkidice); remains between the Zographou and Konstamonitou monasteries. It appears in the Athenian lists of tribute quotas with a tribute between 4,000 and 9,000 drachmai, remained in the Delian League (cf. ATL 1, 286 f.) even after 432 BC, passed to Brasidas in the winter of 424/3 (Thuc. 4,109), but seems to have been conquered back in the following year by Cleon [1]. In the summer of 421, T., described in Thuc. 5,35,1 as an ally of the Athenian…

Aenea

(157 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (ᾌνεια; Áineia). Situated on the north-west coast of the  Chalcidice peninsula, close to the modern Nea Moudania, of unknown origin. Taking coins as evidence, A. was seen as a foundation by  Aeneas [1] as early as 500 BC. In the 5th cent. BC, it joined the  Delian League, and remained a member beyond 432 BC. At the latest in 349/8 BC, it became Macedonian. In 315 BC, it lost a number of its inhabitants to the new foundation of Thessalonica, but continued to exist. A. is further mentioned on a Delphian list of theorodokoi (a…

Assera

(113 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Assa). Localized by Hdt. 7,122 on the northern coast of the Gulf of Singus, it was identical with the A. of the tribute lists of the  Delian League and was located at the seaside south of the modern Gomation. In 432 BC, A., together with other Chalcidians, seceded from Athens and, for a while, belonged to the Chalcidic state, later to the Chalcidic Confederacy (FGrH Theopompus 115 fr. 147). With the demise of the confederacy, A. became Macedonian; last mentioned around 200 BC in a list of Delphian theorodokoi. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes…

Sithonia

(177 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σιθωνία/ Sithōnía). Middle finger-like promontory of the Chalcidian peninsula, which, together with its hinterland, was the settlement area of the Chalcidians. The cities of Olynthus, Mecyberna, Sermylia, Pilorus, Assera and possibly Stolus can be located to the north of the isthmus where Singus was and Gale, Torone and Sarte to the south of it. These cities are in the Athenian tribute lists, some from 454/3 BC, some not until shortly before 432, when, except for Torone and Sarte,…

Scione

(189 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League (Σκιώνη/ Skiṓnē). City on the southern coast of Pallene [4] between Nea Skioni and Agios Nikolaos. According to local tradition (Thuc. 4,120,1; cf. Konon FGrH 26 F 13;  Polyaenus, Strat. 7,47) S. was founded after the Trojan War by Achaei from Pellene. In the winter of 480/79 BC S. took part in the defence of Potidaea against the Persians (Hdt. 8,128). S. then appears consistently with six talents in the …

Sermylia

(204 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Σερμυλία/ Sermylía). City on the right bank of the Chavrias to the south of modern Ormilia at the northern end of the Gulf of Torone (Hdt. 7,122; Scyl. 66). The earliest evidence for S. is on silver coins minted in the 6th cent. BC (HN 207). Judging by the magnitude of its tribute during its membership of the Delian League (ATL 400 f.), varying between three and seven talents, S. was after Torone the most important Chalcidian city. …

Anthemus

(99 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[English version] (Ἀνθεμοῦς). Landschaft mit Fluß (h. Vasilikiotikos) und Stadt (beim h. Galatista) gleichen Namens im Norden der Chalkidischen Halbinsel. Im 5. Jh. v. Chr. makedonisch (Thuk. 2,99,6); im 4. Jh. zeitweilig dem Chalkidischen Bund überlassen (Xen. hell. 5,2,13), stellte A. eine Reiterabteilung zu Alexanders Heer (Arr. an. 2,9,3). Inschr. zufolge existierte die Stadt bis in die Kaiserzeit. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, L. D. Loukopoulou, Recherches sur les marches orientales des Téménides 1, 1992, 35-67  F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Ma…

Sarte

(115 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σάρτη; Sártē). Mentioned in Hdt. 7,122 as the southernmost of the towns on the east coast of the Chalcidian Sithonia (Chalcidice), S. should be found in the area of present-day Sarti. S. appears in the Athenian registers of the tribute shares only in 434/3 BC (ATL 1,396 f.), after the area was split off from Torone; in 432, at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, it sided with Athens; in 415/4 it appears once more in the evidence as a member of the Delian League. Since it is not mentioned again in the evidence, S. must have been re-incorporated later by Torone. Zahrnt, Michael…

Smila

(32 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σμίλα; Smíla). City in Crusis (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 148; Hdt. 7,123,2; ATL 1, 410 f., until 421 BC). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 236.

Sane

(205 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Σάνη/ Sánē). [German version] [1] Colony of Andros This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Persian Wars | Delian League Colony of Andros on the south side of the isthmus of the Chalcidian Acte (Chalcidice) at the end of the canal built by Xerxes (Hdt. 7,22 f.; 123). As a member of the Delian League, S. paid on average one talent a year in the 5th cent. BC (ATL 1,396 f.). In 432 BC, at the onset of the Peloponnesian War, S. remained on Athens' side and in the winter of 424/423 resisted the attack b…
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