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Therambos

(105 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Θεράμβως; Therámbōs). T. is mentioned in Hdt. 7,123,1 as the southeasternmost city on the (Pallene [4] peninsula (Scyl. 66: Thrambēís; Steph. Byz. s. v. Θράμβος), presumably in the area of modern Paliuri. T. appears in the Athenian tribute lists, initially together with Scione and from 446/5 BC separately, with the constant contribution of 1000 drachmai (ATL 1, 284 f.) and seems to have remained in the Delian League until the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC. The further history of T. is not known; T. may have been reincorporated into Scione. Zahrnt, Michael (Kie…

Dion

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Persons (Δίων; Díōn) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [I 1] Close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy Son of Hipparinus, brother-in-law and son-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse, b. 409 BC, close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy since Plato's first visit to Syracuse in 388. He gained prestige and wealth as Dionysius' I' trusted friend and advisor and also remained an influential person under Dionysius II. In 366, he arbitrated the peace with Carthage and called Pl…

Aphytis

(136 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League On the east coast of Pallene south of Potidaea. A member of the  Delian League during the 5th cent. BC, A. remained loyal to Athens even after 432 BC; A. received concessions in exchange (ATL 2,75, D 21), but as a consequence was besieged by Lysander (Plut. Lys. 20,7; Paus. 3,18,3). As a member of the Chalcidian League for a time during the 1st half of the 4th cent. (Syll.3 135), A. became part of the Macedonian realm. A. briefly re…

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Arybbas

(162 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἀρύββας; Arýbbas). Son of Alcetas (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,5; Paus. 1,11,1ff.), he became the sole king of the Molossi in about 360 BC after the death of his brother Neoptolemus, with whom he seems to have shared rule, married Neoptolemus' daughter Troas and took over the guardianship of her siblings  Alexander [6] and  Olympias. No later than 357, he gave the latter as a wife to the Macedonian king Philip II (Just. E…

Sermaei

(52 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σερμαῖοι; Sermaîoi). A city, mentioned from 450/449 until 432/1 in the Athenian tribute lists (ATL 398 f.) and reassessed in 421 BC, probably to be located on the western side of the Chalcidian peninsula; its later history is unknown. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 223-225.

Strepsa

(128 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Στρέψα/ Strépsa). A city - probably in the west of the region Anthemus to the south of Basilica - first mentioned for the time of Xerxes' campaign (Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 61) and from 454/3 BC in the Athenian tribute lists with an unchanging tribute of one talent (ATL 1, 412 f.). In 432 S. seceded from Athens and probably could not be won back. For one last time, S. is mentioned in Aeschin. Leg. 27 among the cities conquered in 370 BC from Calindoea by Pausanias [5], the pretender to the Macedonian throne,. Zahrnt, Michael (…

Alorus

(85 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἄλωρος; Álōros). Macedonian city located south of the  Haliacmon near Cypsela, hometown of  Ptolemaeus (son-in-law of Macedonian king Amyntas [3] III) and of the trierarch Pantauchus (Alexander's Indus fleet) [1]. Mentioned in ancient geographical literature (cf. Pomponius Mela 2,35); way-station in the imperial period. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Berve 2, no. 604. N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia 1, 1972, 131-135 M. B. Hatzopoulos, L. D. Loukopoulou, Two Studies in Ancient Macedonian Topography, 1987, 37-40 F. Papazoglou, Les vill…

Poseidium

(388 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ποσείδιον/ Poseídion). [German version] [1] Sanctuary of Poseidon Samios on the coast of Triphylia Sanctuary of Poseidon Samios with a busy harbour on the coast of Triphylia (probably meant in  Hom. Od. 3,4 ff.; Str. 8,3,13; 3,16 f.; 3,20) in the Klidi coastal pass at the foot of the Kaiapha mountains, exact location not known. The P. was once the central sanctuary of Triphylia with a festival of its own. The cult statue of Poseidon at the time of Pausanias (2nd cent. AD) was in Elis [2] (Paus. 6,25,6). Samicum Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 198…

Athos

(315 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Ἄθως; Áthōs). [German version] I. Classical and Hellenistic era Highest elevation on the largely forested peninsula of the same name, which in antiquity was mostly called Acte; it is almost 50 km long and averages 6-8 km wide. On its south-east tip a Persian fleet was wrecked in 492 BC and then in 411 BC a Spartan one; its isthmus was penetrated before the advance of Xerxes. The inhabitants of the peninsula (origins largely unknown) were rumoured to be especially long-lived (Makrobioi). The mostly small…

Sinus

(64 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σίνος; Sínos). City in Bottice, known only from the Athenian tribute lists, where it appears four times between 434/3 and 421/0 BC (ATL 1,406 f.). A document from the time of Cassander found in Potidaea (Syll.3 332) mentions estates in the area of Sinaea. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, Une donation du roi Lysimaque, 1988  M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 1971, 230 f.

Olynthus

(784 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Ionic | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Ὄλυνθος; Ólynthos). In mythology, O. was either a son of the river god Strymon, who died hunting at the site of the future town of O. in the west of Chalcidice, or a son of Hercules. The location of the town named after him, on two elongated hills on the east bank of the Vatunia River, was established by American excavations (1928-1934). The southerly hill was set…

Scapsa

(104 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σκάψα; Skápsa). The Scapsaei, who feature in the Athenian tribute lists (ATL 1, 408 f.) from 452/1 BC onwards, may be identified with the inhabitants of the city of Campsa, located by Hdt. 7,123,2 in Crusis, to the northwest of modern Nea Iraklia. In 432 they seceded from Athens, but were won back and there is evidence of their being members of the Delian League in 415/4. In the middle of the 4th century S. was a member of the Chalcidian League, before the city was conquered by Philippus [4] II. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Olynth und die Chalkidier, 197…

Pallene

(683 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Παλλήνη/ Pallḗnē). [German version] [1] Daughter of the giant Alcyoneus Also called Palene (Παλήνη/ Palḗnē): Suda s.v. Ἀλκυονίδες ἡμέραι. According to Hegesander (or Agesander: FHG 4, 422, fr. 46), daughter of the giant Alcyoneus [1], who, along with her sisters (Alcyonides [2]), threw herself into the ocean from the Canastraeum, only to be turned into a kingfisher ( alkyṓn, after her father) by Amphitrite (Suda l.c.; Eust. ad Hom. Il. 1,563, p. 776,33-39 (according to Pausanias); Apostolius Paroemiographus 2,20). Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography P.M.C. Forbes Irving, Metamo…

Spartolus

(184 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Delian League (Σπάρτωλος/ Spárt ōlos). The most significant city in the territory of the Bottiaei, hard to locate exactly, first mentioned in the Athenian Tribute Lists (ATL 1, 412 f.), initially with two talents, from 434/3 BC with three. S. seceded from Athens in 432 (Thuc. 1,58,1) and participated on the side of its opponents in the Peloponnesian War. In the summer of 429 the Athenians suffered a defeat at S.; the following wint…

Tharyps

(120 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Θάρυψ/ Tháryps). The T. mentioned in 429 BC as being under the guardianship of a Sabylinthus (Thuc. 2,80,6) is the first undoubtedly historical king of the Molossi. According to Plut. Pyrrhus 1,4 he made a name for himself as the first Molossian ruler by providing the cities with Greek customs, education and benign laws; according to Just. Epit. 17,3,9-13 he was raised in Athens and was the first to institute laws, a council, annually changing officials and a rei publicae forma ('state structure'). Accordingly, the monarch-led federal state may have been c…

Mecyberna

(178 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Μηκύβερνα/ Mēkýberna). M., which is located about 20 stadia east of Olynthus on the northern coast of the Gulf of Torone, is first mentioned in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 150 and in the context of Xerxes' campaign (Hdt. 7,122). After 446 BC it is recorded in the Athenian tribute lists. In 432, M. revolted against Athens, was dissolved as a pólis and lost its population to Olynthus, but was reconquered before 425. In the ‘Peace of Nicias’ ( Peloponnesian War), its independence from Olynthus was establi…

Sithones

(90 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] (Σιθῶνες/ Sithônes, Σίθωνες/ Síthōnes). The S., counted by Str. 7a,1,11 as a group of the Edones in Thrace, may have been the original inhabitants of Sithonia and its hinterland, driven back by Chalcidians from Euboea [1] colonising the region. Their relationship to the Sithoni mentioned in Plin. HN 4,41 on the coast of the Black Sea is unknown. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. B. Hatzopoulos, Actes de vente de la Chalcidique centrale, 1988, 52 f.  Id., Grecs et barbares dans les cités de l'arrière-pays de la Chalcidique, in: Klio 71, 1989, 60-65.

Acanthus

(323 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
(Ἄκανθος; Ákanthos). [German version] [1] Colony of  Andros This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League Colony of  Andros on the east coast of the  Chalcidice peninsula near the modern Ierissos; in the Persian War (480/79 BC) an important Persian base (Hdt. 7,22; 115 ff.); later a member of the  Delian League, seceded in 424 BC (Thuc. 4,84-88) and was also able to hold its own against the Chalcidian Confederacy (Syll.3 1,135). From 349/8 BC Macedonian In the Second Macedonian War, A. was p…

Perdiccas

(866 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Περδίκκας; Perdíkkas). [German version] [1] Founder of the Macedonian kingdom According to Herodotus (8,137-139), P. was the 7th-cent. BC founder of the Macedonian royal house and the Macedonian kingdom, whose beginnings lay in the region of the subsequent royal seat of Aegae [1]. Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography M. Zahrnt, Die Entwicklung des makedonischen Reiches bis zu den Perserkriegen, in: Chiron 14, 1984, 345-348. [German version] [2] P. II Macedonian king, c. 450-413 BC Son of Alexander [2] I, king of Macedonia c. 450-413 BC, asserted himself against his brothers …
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