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(2,481 words)

Author(s): Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna)
[German version] A. Term, Terminology, Origins A letter is a written message to an absent recipient. The Greek epistolḗ (ἐπιστολή) is the verbal noun for ἐπιστέλλειν; epistéllein, ‘to give a message (to a messenger)’ or ‘to send a written or oral message (to s.o.)’; epistolḗ means ‘a sent message’, which in earlier times could also include an oral message. Synonyms: grámmata (γράμματα), literally ‘piece of writing’, Lat. epistula, litterae. Wherever script was developed, writing letters was one of its first applications. For that reason, communication by writing…


(713 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] [1] T., M. Tullius Cicero's secretary, 1st cent. BC Born in the house of Cicero's (= Cic.) grandfather in Arpinum as son of a prisoner of war, therefore as a slave, in 103 BC (according to [3] in 80 BC). T. was made a freedman by his master Cic., who was not much older than he, only in 53 (cf. Cic. Fam. 16,16,1). He was a valuable help to his master in all possible ways, as the latter repeatedly emphasized (for instance, in Cic. Fam. 16,4,3 in 50 BC). T. accompanied Cic. to Cilicia in 51, …


(300 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Iulius T. Tutor of princes, teacher of rhetoric, late 2nd cent. Active probably in the late 2nd cent. AD as a tutor of princes and later in Vesontio (modern Besançon) and Lugdunum (modern Lyon) as a teacher of rhetoric, T. was the author of numerous (non-surviving) works. He was famous for his prose ' Letters of Famous Women' written on the model of Ovidius' Heroides (on the choice of the letters of Cicero as a stylistic model: Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,1,2). Furthermore, there is evidence of a collection of themata from Vergil for teaching rhetoric, a prose paraphrase …


(1,389 words)

Author(s): Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Lehnardt, Andreas | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] I. Greek (Σύμμαχος/ Sýmmachos). [German version] [I 1] Author of a commentary on Aristophanes, 1st half of the 2nd cent. No later than the first half of the 2nd cent. AD (citation in Herodian. 2,945-946 Lentz); author of a commentary on Aristophanes [3], frequently used in Late Antiquity and Byzantine scholia literature ( subscriptio Schol. Aristoph. Av.; Nub.; Pax). It remains unclear whether S. also commented on comedies which do not survive [2. 1138 f.]. Of the 41 (factual) explanations attributed to S. by name in the Aristophane…