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Valency

(2,050 words)

Author(s): Zouhair Maalej
Valency is a verb-centered phenomenon, consisting in cataloguing the different nominal structures that participate in achieving verb complementation (Spencer 1991:190). Under the influence of the formal paradigm in linguistics, valency is, thus, reduced to a syntactic dimension. In the functional/cognitive paradigm, however, there is a grammatical valency relation when “two or more symbolic structures combine to form a more elaborate expression” (Langacker 1987:277). The result of valency is a “…
Date: 2018-04-01

Middle Verbs

(2,223 words)

Author(s): Zouhair Maalej
The transitivity system in Arabic includes two classes of verbs: lāzim lit. ‘stationary’, corresponding to the intransitive pattern in English, and mutaʿaddin lit. ‘crossing over [to an object]’, corresponding to the transitive pattern (taʿaddin). Intran-sitive verbs are self-sufficient, not requiring for the completion of their meaning more than the subject or fāʿil lit. ‘the doer’, e.g. ḏahaba zaydun ‘Zayd left’. It is agreed that transitive verbs need for the completion of their meaning a mafʿūl bihi lit. ‘affected complement’, a direct object form. For a more compr…
Date: 2018-04-01