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Trendforschung

(302 words)

Author(s): Zweigle, Birgit
[English Version] ist popularisierte und kommerzialisierte Prospektive, eine wiss. Methode zur Ermittlung möglicher Zukunftsszenarien mittels mathematischer Verfahren, entwickelt (Gaston Berger, Jean Fourastié), um verschiedenen Eventualitäten ökonomischer und technischer Entwicklungen polit. gewachsen zu sein. Alvin Toffler (»Future Shock«, 1970, 7 Mio. Exemplare) und Herman Kahn (Hudson-Institut) machten aus der akademischen Prospektive eine publizistisch erfolgreiche und kommerziell gewinnbring…

Fashion

(470 words)

Author(s): Zweigle, Birgit
[German Version] Fashion is a symbolic means of self-styling. Every item of the wardrobe serves to demonstrate social ¶ affiliation or delimitation. Fashion has not only aesthetic aspects but also a communicative function. Through clothing we define ourselves aesthetically by means of the quality, cut, and colors of the material, and also socially with regard to hierarchies (above, below, alongside). A person's clothing allows us to classify that person within a specific time, society, and profession. By covering …

Coeducation

(508 words)

Author(s): Zweigle, Birgit
[German Version] refers to common education and instruction for the two sexes. The first coeducational institutions were established in the USA in the late 19th century. Coeducation was introduced particularly in the newly-founded colleges and universities in the Midwest and West. Politicians and educators justified coeducation in the state universities in terms of financial pressures. The Northeast and South decided to establish women's colleges, which primarily…

Trends Research

(338 words)

Author(s): Zweigle, Birgit
[German Version] is a popularized and commercialized form of futurology, a scientific method of determining possible future scenarios using mathematical tools, developed (Gaston Berger, Jean Bourastié) to be politically prepared to deal with various eventualities of economic and technological development. Alvin Toffler ( Future Shock, 1970, 7 million copies sold) and Herman Kahn (Hudson Institute) turned academic futurology into trends research, a journalistically successful and commercially profitable consulting industry. In America they…

Converts, Instruction of

(396 words)

Author(s): Zweigle, Birgit
[German Version] This is the education that accompanies conversion. Conversion constitutes a change of religion or denomination. The unbaptized are prepared for their conversion by means of baptismal instruction or the catechumenate, previously baptized converts through discussions. In theory, the instruction of converts may be applied to both procedures, though it usually designates the accompaniment of the already baptized in distinction to baptismal instruction. The …

Drugs

(1,338 words)

Author(s): Murken, Sebastian | Ulbrich, Paul | Kreß, Hartmut | Zweigle, Birgit
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Medicine – III. Ethics – IV. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies Drugs have been used since prehistoric times both for healing purposes and as a means of transcending the normal state of consciousness. The extraordinary state of consciousness induced by drugs (Intoxication, trance, ecstasy) facilitates the contact with the transcendent world and its be…