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al-Jawād al-Iṣfahānī

(749 words)

Author(s): updated by, ¨ | Frenkel, Yehoshua
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Jawād al-Iṣfahānī (d. 559/1164), also known by the honorific name of Jāmal al-Dīn, was a vizier of the Zangids who became one of the most intimate friends of ʿImād al-Dīn Zangī (r. 521–41/1127–46). As a close confidant of Zangī he became governor of Naṣībīn and al-Raqqa and was eventually entrusted with general supervision of the entire Zangid empire. As a child al-Jawād al-Iṣfahānī had been carefully educated by his father and at a very early age was given an official appointment in the dīwān al-ʿarḍ (department of the army, a subdivision of the dīwān al-jaysh
Date: 2022-02-04

Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī

(1,045 words)

Author(s): Longrigg, Steven Helmsley | updated by, ¨ | Ochsenwald, William
Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī, amīr (known in Western sources as Grand Sharif) of Mecca from 1908 to 1916, and king of the Ḥijāz from 1916 to 1924, proclaimed the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, and sought the title of caliph, but lost his kingdom to the Saudi dynasty. Ḥusayn was a member of the ʿAwn branch of the Meccan Hāshimite sharīfs who, as descendants of the prophet Muḥammad, shared rule in Mecca and parts of the Ḥijāz with the Ottoman governors of that province. Born in Istanbul in 1853 or 1854, Ḥusayn passed his youth partly in the Ḥijāz and partly in Istanbul, where after 18…
Date: 2021-05-25

Hāshimīs of Mecca

(1,069 words)

Author(s): Rentz, G. | updated by, ¨ | Ochsenwald, William
The Hāshimīs (Hashemites) were a dynasty of Ḥasanī descendants of the prophet Muḥammad (sharīfs) who ruled Mecca as amīrs almost without interruption from the fourth/tenth century until 1924. After the First World War, the dynasty provided kings for Syria and Iraq, which later became republics, and gave its name to the territory that became the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The dynasty was named after Hāshim b. ʿAbd Manāf, the paternal great-grandfather of the prophet Muḥammad. The majority of the Shīʿa recognised as their Imāms descendants of ʿAlī’s younger son al-Ḥusa…
Date: 2021-05-25


(596 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. Edmund | updated by, ¨ | Ruggles, D. Fairchild
Nāʾīn (Nāyin) is a small town (lat. N 32°52′ long. E 53°05′, elev. 1,408 metres) on the southwestern edge of the Great Desert of central Iran, on the road connecting Yazd with Isfahan and Qum. The town, known for its large citadel and its congregational mosque, seems to have had a pre-Islamic history, but nothing is known of it. The mediaeval Islamic geographers place it in the sardsīr (cooler upland regions) and describe it as located administratively within Fārs but as dependent on either Yazd or Isfahan. According to Mustawfī (69, trans. 77), its citadel, wh…
Date: 2021-07-19


(474 words)

Author(s): Paret, Rudi | updated by, ¨ | Cook, David B.
al-Aʿrāf (pl. of ʿurf, “elevated place”, “crest”), appears in an eschatological judgement scene in Qurʾān 7:46, where a dividing wall is spoken of, which separates the dwellers of Paradise from the dwellers of Hell, and men “who are on the al-aʿrāf and recognise each by his marks” (Q 7:48, “those of the al-aʿrāf”). The interpretation of this passage is disputed. Richard Bell makes a doubtful conjecture that the word is al-iʿrāf and translates: “(Presiding) over the recognition are men, who recognise… .” According to Tor Andrae the “men on the elevated places” are …
Date: 2021-07-19

Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ

(867 words)

Author(s): Madelung, Wilferd | updated by, ¨ | Halm, Heinz
Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ b. al-Ashʿath was the leader of the Qarmatian movement in the sawād (rural district) of Kufa. Al-Ṭabarī (3:2125) has Karmītah, which is supposed to mean “red-eyed.” The diminutive form Qarmāṭūya is used by al-Nawbakhtī and Niẓām al-Mulk. Originally a carrier (who transported goods on oxen) from the village of al-Dūr in the ṭassūj (subdistrict) of Furāt Bādaqlā (east of Kufa), he was converted to the early Ismāʿīlī movement by the dāʿī (propagandist) al-Ḥusayn al-Ahwāzī. The date 264/878 given for his conversion by a much later report may be approximate…
Date: 2021-07-19

Buluggīn b. Zīrī

(558 words)

Author(s): Idris, Hady R. | updated by, ¨ | Halm, Heinz
Buluggīn (standard Ar., Buluqqīn) b. Zīrī b. Manād (d. 373/984), was the first Zīrid ruler of Ifrīqiya. For distinction in the service of the Fāṭimids as amīr of the Ṣanhāja Berbers against the Zanāta Berbers, he was named governor of Ifrīqiya by the Fāṭimid caliph al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh (r. 341–65/953–75). As he was almost always on campaigns in the central Maghrib, he entrusted the administration of al-Qayrawān and eastern Ifrīqiya to a vice- amīr, ʿAbdallāh b. Muḥammad al-Kātib, son of an Aghlabid prince, whose power grew continuously. Buluggīn founded Algiers, Miliana (Milyāna…
Date: 2021-07-19


(791 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Gibb, H. A. R. | updated by, ¨ | Gordon, Matthew S.
Afshīn was a title borne by a family of Central Asian rulers, dating from pre-Islamic times; one of these rulers, known in Arabic sources as al-Afshīn (d. 226/841), became a military leader under the caliphs al-Maʾmūn (r. 198–218/813–833) and al-Muʿtaṣim (r. 218–27/833–42). The rulers of Ushrūsana, the mountainous district between Samarqand and Khujanda (Barthold, 165–9), bore this title, and al-Yaʿqūbī ( Taʾrīkh, 2:479) lists the Afshīn of “Usrūshana” among the chiefs of Transoxania and Central Asia that pledged nominal loyalty to the caliph al-Mahdī. Th…
Date: 2021-07-19

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbdallāh al-Ghāfiqī

(367 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, Évariste | updated by, ¨ | Molénat, Jean-Pierre
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbdallāh al-Ghāfiqī (d. 114/732) served twice as governor ( wālī) of al-Andalus. The first time, in 102/721, he was elected by the jund (army) and held office for about two months as interim governor after the death of al-Samḥ b. Mālik al-Khawlānī on 8 Dhū l-Ḥijja 102/9 June 721, while on an expedition in the south of France. The second time, in Ṣafar 112/March-April 730, he was appointed—perhaps directly by the Umayyad caliph Hishām (r. 105–25/724–43) rather than through the mediation of the governor…
Date: 2021-07-19

al-Thamīnī, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(721 words)

Author(s): De Motylinski, Adolphe | Lewicki, Tadeusz | updated by, ¨ | al-Salimi, Abdurrahman S.
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbdallāh b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Thamīnī al-Yasjanī (b. c.1130/1718, d. 1223/1808), known as Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn, was a celebrated Ibāḍī scholar from the Mzāb, a group of oases in present-day northeastern Algeria. His genealogy goes back, like that of Muḥammad b. Yūsuf Aṭfayyish (d. 1332/1914), to ʿUmar b. Ḥafṣ al-Hintātī (d. 571/1175–6), forebear of the Ḥafṣids, who ruled Tunisia from the seventh/thirteenth to the tenth/sixteenth century; by another account he was descended from the ca…
Date: 2021-07-19