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Peucini, Peuci

(105 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πευκῖνοι; Peukînoi). Important tribe of the Bastarnae (Str. 7,3,17; Plin. HN 4,100: Peucini Bastarnae; occasionally even used to refer to the Bastarnae as a whole, cf. Tac. Germ. 46; name probably a foreign expression derived from Peuce) in the north east of Dacia (Daci), east of the Troglodytae in the Danube delta (Ptol. 3,10,9). They shared characteristics with the Goti (Iord. Get. 91 for AD 248), and took part in the raid on the Aegean in AD 269, which Claudius [III 2] halted at Naissus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography L. Schmidt, Geschichte der…

Panda

(37 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] [1] Unidentifiable river east of the Maiotis Unidentifiable river east of the Maiotis, three days' march from Tanais [2] (Tac. Ann. 12,16,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] see Sondergötter see Sondergötter

Cadusii

(113 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καδούσιοι; Kadoúsioi, Lat. Cadusii). Iranian group of nomadic tribes in the mountains between Media and the coast of the Caspian Sea, neighbours of the Anariaci and Albani (Str. 11,8,1). The Pantimati and Dareitai (Hdt. 3,92) possibly also belonged to the C. The  Achaemenids [2] had to battle against several revolts of the C.: in 408/7 BC, Artaxerxes II fought unsuccessfully (Xen. Hell. 2,1,13), but Artaxerxes III Ochus defeated and pacified them shortly after coming to power (359 B…

Macrones

(143 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάκρωνες; Mákrōnes). Mountain people, already mentioned by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 206, who belonged to the 19th tax district under Darius [1] (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78; mentioned here between the Tibareni and the Mossynoeci). According to Xen. (An. 4,7,24; 8,1-22), their region lay south-west of Trapezus. Modern Meryemana Deresi (righthand tributary of Maçka Dere) then formed the border river between M. and Scythae; the border fortress of the Colchi was located outside Cevrilik. Colchic influence…

Rhoxolani

(277 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥωξολανοί/ Rhōxolanoí, Lat. Roxolani). Sarmatic tribe or group of tribes (Sarmatae; Str. 2,5,7, cf. 7,2,4; 7,3,17 in connection with Hipparchus [6], Eratosthenes [2]) that lived in the period approximately up to the time of Christ in the steppes between Tanais (Don) and Borysthenes (Dniepr) north of the Maeotis (Plin. HN 4,80; Ptol. 3,5,19; 24 f.). In the battle against Diophantus [3], general of Mithridates [6] VI, the R. fought under their king Tasius on the side of Palacus, king of the Scythians (113 BC?; Syll.3 709). In the 1st cent. AD, the R. settled on th…

Abritus

(178 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | (Ἄβριττος; Ábrittos). Roman fortress and civilian settlement, 2 km east of the modern Razgrad, Bulgaria; pre-Roman Thracian settlement, probably the administrative centre of the strategia Rysiké under the last of the Thracian kings (IGBulg 743). From 45 BC part of  Moesia inferior; from no later than AD 78 encampment of auxilia (CIL XVI 22); in the 2nd cent. AD garrison of the cohors II Lucensium (CIL III 13727); strongly fortified in the 4th cent. AD. Inscriptions confirm a civilian settleme…

Sarmatae

(900 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σαρμάται/ Sarmátai, Σαυρομάται/ Sauromátai; Lat. Sarmatae). Iranian nomadic tribes who include, among others, the Alani, Aorsi, Iazyges, Rhoxolani and Sirachi. They lived until the mid 3rd cent. BC east of the Tanais (modern Don), regarded as the border between Scythae (with map) and S. (Hdt. 4,21), in the steppes north of the Caucasus (τὰ τῶν Σαρματῶν πεδία/ tà tôn Sarmatôn pedía, Str. 11,2,15). The Syrmatae probably lived in the outermost western region (Steph. Byz., s.v. Συρμάται; in Ps.-Scyl. 68 already west of the Tanais). From the m…

Naparis

(21 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νάπαρις; Náparis). Left-bank tributary of the Danube in Scythia (Hdt. 4,48); not identifiable. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Peuce

(214 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Πεύκη; Peúkē). [German version] [1] Largest island in the delta of the Istrus [2] The largest island in the delta of the Istrus [2] (Danube) in Getae territory (Apoll. Rhod. 4,309-322; Str. 7,3,15; Amm. 22,8,43; according to Ps.-Scymn. in 785-789 P. was no smaller than Rhodes, but this must be a misunderstanding), probably modern Sfântu Gheorghe (to the north of P. [2]). In 335 BC Alexander [4] the Great tried in vain to defeat the Thraci and Triballi, who had fled on to P. (Str. 7,3,8; Arr. Anab. 1,2f.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] Southern branch at the…

Serrheium

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σέρρειον ἄκρα/ Sérrheion ákra, Σέρρειον τεῖχος/ Sérrheion teîchos, Σέρριον/Sérrhion; Latin Serrheum). Cape (Str. 7a,1,48; App. B Civ. 4,101 f.) and castle on the north coast of the Aegean, in the west of the Plain of Doriscus (Hdt. 7,59) in the area settled by the Thracian Satrae, modern Makri west of modern Alexandroupolis. While occupied by the Delian League, the castle was captured in 346 BC by Philippus [4] II (Aeschin. Or. 3,82; Dem. Or. 6,64; 7,37; 9,15; 10,8; 65; 18,27; 70). In 200 …

Bizone

(146 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βιζώνη; Bizṓnē). Ancient settlement on the terraces leading to the plateau of the Dobruža, Čirakman on the western Black Sea coast. Traces of settlement from the Aeneolithic; originally a Thracian settlement, but hardly an apoikia of Mesambria/Mesembria (Ps.-Scymn. 758f.). Probably a polis as early as the 4th cent. BC; epigraphical evidence for the chora from the early 2nd cent. BC (Inscriptiones Scythiae Minoris 1,15,26f.). B. was captured by Lucullus in 72/71 BC (Eutr. 6,10); soon after, it was destroyed by an earthquake (Plin. H…

Borysthenes

(120 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βορυσθένης; Borysthénēs). After the Ister, the largest river in the northern area of the Black Sea (Hdt. 4,53), the modern Dnieper. Debouches into the west of the Black Sea, into the same lagoon as does the Hypanis. The B. was navigable for 600 stades upstream (Str. 7,3,17). The Skythai georgoi settled on its fertile lower reaches. Antiquity had no clear idea as to its course in the hinterland (Hdt. 4,18; Str. 7,2,4; Procop. Goth. 4,5). It had the name Danapris or Danaper from the 4th cent. AD; the Huns called it by the Iranian…

Orbelus

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὄρβηλος/ Órbēlos). Mountain range in the border area between Thrace and Macedonia (Hdt. 5,16; Str. 7a,1,36; Arr. Anab. 1,1,5), generally equated with the modern Belasica in the northern part of Halkidiki. It was known for its Dionysus cult (Mela 2,17). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoričeskata geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 24f., 118.

Delcus

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δέλκος; Délkos, Byzantine Δέρκος; Dérkos). Lake to the north of  Byzantium, today Derkoz Gölü/Turkey. According to Ath. 3,118b, the delkanós (δελκανός) was caught there, a fish that originated in the Délkōn (Δέλκων), which flowed into the D. In the Roman period an oppidum of the same name. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Ininthimaeus

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰνινθίμαιος; Ininthímaios). Bosporan king, c. AD 234-239 of the dynasty of the Tiberii Iulii. Like his emblem, his name is also Sarmatian. Attested on coins and in inscriptions (including IOSPE 2, 334, 433). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukević, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 458 A. N. Zograph, Ancient Coinage, 1977, II, 333.

Sindice

(151 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σινδική/ Sindikḗ). Probably originally the combined territory of the peninsula and island group of Taman to the north of the Hypanis [1]/Bug (Ps.-Scyl. 72), named after the Sindi; later it was probably only the southern part of the peninsula that bore this name (Str. 11,2,10). S. was also settled by other tribes, e.g. by the Aspurgiani (Str. 11,2,11; 12,3,29). S. was an agriculturally significant region with a dense network of settlements. In the 6th cent. BC Greek colonies (Hermo…

Satrae

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάτραι; Sátrai). Thracian tribe on the northern coast of the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegaean) between Nestus and Strymon on the northeastern slopes of the Pangaeum, whose ore deposits they exploited (Hdt. 7,112; possibly also meant by  Σατροκένται/ Satrokéntai in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 181). The Edones are recorded as being there from 475 BC onwards (Hdt. 9,75). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography 1 J. N. Jurukova, Monetite na trakijskite plemena i vladeteli (Monetni sakrovista ot balgarskite zemi), 1992, 16 2 I. von Bredow, Stammesnamen und Stammeswir…

Hylaea

(98 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὑλαία; Hylaía). Forested area, east of the Borysthenes (Hdt. 4,17; 19; Ps.-Scymn. 844f.) between the Kinburn peninsula and Skadovska in the steppes of the lower Dniester, belonging to  Olbia. In the archaic and classical eras, it was significant for  Scythians and Greek colonists. The Scythian name for H. was Abika (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὑ.). H. played a large role in Scythian mythology (cf. Hdt. 4,9; 76). A large production and trade centre with docks, probably from the 6th/5th cents. BC, has been discovered (Jagorlyckoe poselenie). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissi…

Galepsos

(189 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γάληψος; Gálēpsos). [German version] [1] Settlement east of the estuary of the Strymon into the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars Settlement east of the point where the Strymon flows into the Aegean, probably east of Orfani, at the mouth of a water-course between the Pangaeum and the Symvolon. G. was part of the settlement of the Peraea of Thasos. Archaeologically attested from the 7th cent. BC and attested in literature since Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 152). Scyl. 67 et al. call G. a pólis. Together with the small neighb…

Dionysopolis

(278 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia (Διονυσόπολις; Dionysópolis). Settlement on the western coast of the Black Sea, today Balčik/ Bulgaria. There is evidence of settlement dating from Neolithic times. Nothing is known about the founding of the ancient city. On the basis of Ionic elements in inscriptions and the six indirectly identified Miletian phyles (IGBulg 1,15 ter), it is assumed that D. was probably founded by the Miletians in the 7th cent. BC. According to Ps.-Scymn. 75ff., D. was previously known as Krounoí; but accordi…
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