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Pactye

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πακτύη/ Paktýē). Fortress on the Propontic coast of Chersonesus [1], to the south of present-day Bolayır Iskelesi (Ps.-Scyl. 67; Str. 7a,1,52; 54; 56). Here stood the east end of the wall which ran from Miltiades [1] via the Chersonesus [1] to Cardia (Hdt. 6,36; Scymn. 711). Alcibiades [3] retreated here in 407 BC after the loss of his position as strategos (Nep. Alcibiades 7,4; Diod. Sic. 13,74,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Müller 2, 895f.  B. Isaak, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Conquest, 1988.

Mygdones

(147 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μυγδόνες; Mugdónes). Thracian inhabitants of the Mygdonia [1] region (Μυγδονία/ Mygdonía; Macedonia) between the lower Axios, the Gulf of Thermae, the Bolbe and the Kruša and Bogdanska mountains in the east (Hdt. 7,123f.; 127; Strab. 7a,1,11; 36). At the time of Herodotus (5th cent. BC) it was home to groups of Paeones, Sitones and Crestones; according to Thucydides 2,99,4 the Edones were expelled from Mygdonia by the Macedonian kings (after 479 BC? [4. 15]), at the time of Strabo it was i…

Maiotae

(146 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαιῶται; Maiôtai). Greek collective name for the tribes on the east coast of the Maeotis and in the lower and middle reaches of Kuban/north-west Caucasus (Hdt. 4,123; Str. 11,2,2-4; 11). These probably include Iranian and Caucasian tribes of the Sindi, Cercetae, Toretae, Dandarii and Psessii among others. Farming and fishing formed the primary basis of their livelihood (Str. 11,2,4). They traded actively with Tanais in particular. The M. had to pay tributes to the Regnum Bosporanu…

Bergule

(75 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεργούλη; Bergoúlē). Lüle-Burgas on the Erghene, Thracian settlement and important statio of the province of Thracia (Ptol. 3,11,7), called Arcadiopolis from the beginning of the 5th cent. AD. In AD 441, it was threatened by the Huns, and in AD 473, captured by the Goths under  Theoderic. In the Middle Ages, it was a strong fortress. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Zlatarski, Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove 1,1, 21994, pass.

Hygiaeon

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὑγιαίων; Hygiaíōn). Ruler of the Kingdom of the Bosporus ( Regnum Bosporanum), c. 220-200 BC. Successor of  Leucon II, but not as king, rather as árchōn, also portrayed without a royal diadem. Maybe not a Spartocid. On brick stamps and coins ἄρχοντος Ὑγιαίοντος. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporan. Reich, 1971, 93, 95.

Pangaeum

(281 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πάγγαιον/ Pángaion, Παγγαῖον ὄρος/ Pangaîon óros). A mountain chain (up to 1956 m in height) forested in Antiquity, extending parallel to the northern Aegaean coast between the lower Strymon and Kavalla (25 km long, 16 km wide) isolated from other mountain ridges; still called P. today. With its rich gold and silver deposits it was constantly in the centre of disputes (Str. 7a,1,34). Ore production was probably begun in the 7th cent. BC by the Pieres, the Odomanti and the Satrae (Hdt. 7,112), but also by Thasos and the cities of its peraía . At a very early stage Athen…

Alani

(484 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀλανοί; Alanoí). Iranian alliance of tribes north of the  Caspian Sea, from the Caucasus to the Tanais. A. appear in sources since the end of the Roman republic in place of the Sarmatian tribes. During a campaign against  Mithridates VI, Pompey came upon A. (Luc. 8,133). Since the end of the 1st cent. AD there were invasions into Media and Armenia; under Hadrian (AD 117 to 138), they threatened Cappadocia. For their culture, see Lucian, Tox. 51; Amm. Marc. 30,2,3; Iord. Get. 24. A…

Seuthopolis

(184 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Diadochi and Epigoni (Σευθόπολις/ Seuthópolis). Residence city of king Seuthes [4] III of Thrace, 3,5 km to the south of modern Koprinka (municipality of Kazanlak in Bulgaria) at the confluence of the Goljama Varovica and the Tonzos (modern Tundža). A city wall of 890 m enclosed a pentagon (orthogonal city layout) of 5 hectares. In the agora there was a temple to Dionysus, with a great altar in its centre. In the northern part of S. there was a fortress defended by a wall of its own (4620 m2) with the residence …

Moschi

(112 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μόσχοι; Mόschoi). Caucasian tribe between Colchis and Armenia. The Moschikḗ was situated in the hinterland of Phasis (Μοσχική/ Moschikḗ, Str. 11,2,17), the Moschian mountains were to the south of Colchis (Str. 11,2,15; Moschorum tractus, Plin. HN 6,29). Hdt. 7,78 describes the M.'s primitive weapons (wooden helmets, small shields and lances). Under Dareius [1] I. and Xerxes the M. were part of the 19th Persian satrapy (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 288). A shrine to Leucothea and the so-called oracle of Phrixus, which was plu…

Iluraton

(122 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰλούρατον; Iloúraton). Graeco-Scythian settlement north of the Curubas lake in the interior of modern Kerč, c. 17 km from Panticapaeum. Traces of settlement since the Neolithic; founded in the middle of the 1st cent. AD. The results of the excavations are representative for other inland settlements in the Bosporan kingdom of the Roman period: I. was naturally and artificially well fortified. The inhabitants were military peasants who engaged in agriculture and livestock breeding, Hellenized des…

Maduateni

(42 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Ethnicon for the place name Madytus, often erroneously regarded as a small Thracian tribe, mentioned only in Liv. 38,40,7 in connection with the attack by Thracian tribes on Cn. Manlius Vulso in 188 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Bryges

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βρύγες, Βρῦγαι, Βρύγοι, Βρίγες; Brýges, Brŷgai, Brŷgoi, Bríges). Thracian tribe in western Macedonia. In 492/91 BC, the B. ravaged the Persian army under Mardonius (Hdt. 6,45); later, they provided troops for Xerxes' infantry (Hdt. 7,185). They are often erroneously equated with the Phrygians. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Altthrakien, 1976, 271ff.

Theodoropolis

(165 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Θεοδωρόπολις/  Theodōrópolis, also Θεοδωρούπολις/ Theodōroúpolis). Name of several towns and forts in the northern Balkan peninsula founded by Iustinianus [1] I and named after his wife Theodora [2], which have not all been located. [German version] [1] City in Moesia Secunda City in Moesia Secunda (Moesi, with map) on the Danube (Ister [1]), between Securisca (modern Cherkovitsa) and Iatrus (modern Krivina; Proc. Aed. 4,7,5). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] Fort in Dacia Ripiensis Fort in Dacia Ripiensis (Proc. Aed. 4,6,18) on the right b…

Melantias

(76 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελαντιάς/ Melantiás, Melantiana). Last station before (and 150 stadia from) Constantinople on the via Egnatia , where the Athyras flowed into the Propontis (Agathias 5,14,20; It. Ant. 138; 230); its precise location is unknown. The emperor Valens spent several days at his villa in M. before the battle of Adrianopolis in AD 378 (Amm. Marc. 31,11,1; 12,1). In AD 558, M. was attacked by the Cutrigur Huns (Agathias 5,13). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Nipsaei

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νιψαῖοι/ Nipsaîoi). Thracian tribe west of Mesambria, probably on the eastern slopes of the Strandža mountain range to about Salmydessos. When the Persian army under Darius [1] marched through in a northerly direction against the Scythians in 513 BC, the N. subjugated themselves to Darius without bloodshed (Hdt. 4,93). Possibly identical with the Tranipsi (Xen. An. 7,2,32; Hsch. s.v. Τρανιψοί/ Tranipsoí). At the end of the 5th cent. they came under the rule of the Odrysae which is why they are not longer mentioned in later sources. The place name Νίψα/ Nípsa in Steph. …

Rhodope

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥοδόπη/ Rhodópē). Mountain range stretching from the northern shores of the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegean Sea) to the Thracian plain around Philippopolis, mostly high, up to 2000 m in height, and inaccessible, modern Rhodopi, east of the mountain chain border between Greece and Bulgaria. According to ancient tradition R. also included the modern Rila and Pirin chains (Hdt. 4,49; 8,116; Thuc. 2,96-98; Str. 7,5,1; 7, fr. 36). Rich ore production (gold, silver, copper). R. was the area whe…

Tomi

(573 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Balkans, languages (Τόμοι/ Tómoi, Τόμις/ Tómis, Τῶμις/ Tômis; Lat. Tomi). Colony of Miletus [2] (Ps.-Scymn. 765) on the west coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Constanţa (Romania). T. was probably founded in the 6th cent. BC -- although Jer. Chron. 95b,4, lists the founding date as 657 BC. In Plinius [1] the Older (HD 4,44), T. is referred to as Eumenia (originally perhaps an…

Thracia

(272 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Roman province in the north of the Balkan peninsula, established in AD 45. Its boundaries were: to the east the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I.) from Apollonia [2] to the Bosporus [1] including Byzantium (Ptol. 3,11; Hdn. 3,1,5; from no later than AD 201, Mesambria [1] was also part of T.); to the the south the northern coast of the Aegean Sea including the islands of Proconnesus, Thasos, Samothrace and possibly also at times Imbros; to the west the province of Macedonia (border on …

Tirizis

(137 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τίριζις ἄκρα/ Tírizis ákra; Latin Tiristis promunturium). 'Cape' or fortress on the western coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos; Str. 7,6,1; cf. Mela 2,22), on the coast road between Callatis to the north and Dionysopolis to the west, modern Kaliakra (Ptol. 3,10,8: Tiristría ē Tiristrìs ákra; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 35). T.' natural safe position on the steep coast had already been of useful service to the Thracian Terizi. Lysimachus [2] hid his treasure from the attacking Thraci under Seuthes [4] III there at the end of the 4th cent. BC (Str. 7,6,1). The comes foederator…

Perinthus

(481 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | | | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Πέρινθος; Périnthos). Harbour town, established by Samos in 602 BC on a peninsula on the Thracian Propontis coast (Ps.-Scymn. 713-715; Str. 7a,1,56; Diod. Sic. 16,76; Plin. HN 4,47; Colonisation IV), where later the via Egnatia joined the coast road, modern Marmara Ereğlisi. The place name is of pre-Greek origin (cf. the ending -inthos). Around 570/560 BC, P. became …
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