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Ilurcavones

(54 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Ilercavones). An Iberian tribe around Dertosa, on the lower Ebro. They submitted to the Romans in 218 BC (Liv. 21,60,3; for later times cf. also Liv. 22,21,6; Caes. B Civ. 1,60,2; Ptol. 2,6,16; Plin. HN 3,21). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4-8, 1925ff. (Index) Tovar 3, 34f.

Arbucale

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Described in Pol. 3,14,1 (cf. Liv. 21,5,6) as a city of the  Vaccaei (in the provinces of Segovia and Salamanca) [1. 98]. Further references in [2]. Its location is unknown: Toro and Alba de Tormes are considered as possibilities [1. 323]. In 220 BC, after putting up a strong resistance, the city had to surrender to  Hannibal. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 3, 1989 2 E. Hübner, s. v. A., RE 2,1, 420-421. R. Martin Valls, G. Delibes de Castro, Toro ciudad celtibérica, in: Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologia 43, 1977, 306 ff. F. Wattemb…

Segobriga

(102 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Ibero-Roman city Ibero-Roman city (Str. 3,4,13: Σεγοβρίγα/ Segobríga; Ptol. 2,6,56: Σεγουβία/ Segoubía; Plin. HN 3,25), Ruins - including an amphitheatre - on the Cabeza del Griego hill, 2 Roman miles to the south of Saelices (province of Cuenca). S. was a member of the  conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II 4252). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Bishopric at Castellón Bishopric at Castellón, suffragan to Tarragona, later to Cartagena, modern Segorbe [1]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 M. Almagro, Historía de Albarracín y su sierra…

Complutum

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Celtiberian town, whose location near Alcalá de Henares was determined from ruins and inscriptions (CIL II p. 410; Suppl. p. 941). The name of C. is probably Iberian according to Holder [1. 1087] but Roman according to Hübner [2. 795] (‘City of Rain’). Its inhabitants belonged to the  Carpetani (Ptol. Geog. 2,6,56). C. only became important in the Christian period (Paul. Nol. 31,607; Prudent 4,41ff.; Chron. min. 3,648), especially as a diocesan town [3. 444]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2…

Durius

(178 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The modern river Duero (Span.; Portug. Douro). The pre-Celtic name is D. (Sil. Pun. 1,438; 5,323; [1. 1380]), possibly with variant Duris (CIL II 2370). All references (Str. 3,3,2; 4; 6; 3,4,12; 20; Mela 3,8; 10; Plin. HN 4,112f.; 115) indicate that its course was the same in antiquity as it is today. That it was navigable by large vessels for 800 stadia upstream (Str. 3,3,4) is still true today: from its mouth to Barca d'Alva; sailing even small boats on its upper course is today not possible, where…

Oretani

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic Iberian tribe in the area of the middle and upper Guadiana and on the northern slope of the Sierra Morena ( Oretana iuga, Plin. HN 3,6), with their centre in Oretum, 33 km west of Valdepeñas on the Jabalón [1; 2]. They were first mentioned as troops sent to Africa by Hannibal [4] in 219 BC to secure Metagonia and Carthage (Ὀρῆτες Ἴβηρες/ Orêtes Íbēres, Pol. 3,33,9, possibly to differentiate them from the Ωρητανοί/ Ōrētanoí, Ptol. 2,6,58, or O. Germani, Plin. HN 3,25 [3. 29721]) who lived in the same region. In the Visigothic period (6th/7th cent. AD) the bishopric of Oret…

Limia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Coastal river south of Miño, modern Lima. According to [1], the name is Celtic. Ancient references: ‘Millia and Oblivio’, Mela 3,10; ‘Lethe’, Sil. Pun. 1,236; 16,476; ‘Oblivio’, Flor. Epit. 1,33,48; ‘L., Limaea and Aeminius’, Plin. HN 4,112; 115; Λίμιος, Ptol. 2,6,1; Λιμαία, Λήθης and Βελιών, Str. 3,3,4f.; Λήθης, App. Hisp. 301; 304. Explanations of the diversity of names are given by [2]; suppositions of a city L. and the residents of the river, the Lusitanian Limici, in [4]; on the sources in [3]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 Schulten, Land…

Hispania Baetica, Hispania Ulterior

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The beginnings of the province Hispania Baetica (HB) are linked to Augustus' restructuring of the provinces in 27 BC (Cass. Dio 80,2). The earliest document naming HB is an inscription in the Forum Augustum in Rome (ILS 103). From the 2nd cent. AD, HB was named Baetica Provincia or Hispania Baetica (ILS 269). The borders of HB are the Anas (Guadiana) in the west, the Sierra Morena in the north, and the Atlantic and the Mediterranean in the south. The capital of this senatorial province was  Corduba.  Lusitania Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography C. Castillo Garcia, Städ…

Boletum

(45 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City known to us only through inscriptions (CIL II 5843; 5845), probably located near Barbastro/Hispania Tarraconensis. The place name Boletania lasted beyond the Middle Ages; Arab geographers wrote Bortana, which has survived as today's Boltaña. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 384f.

Rubricatum flumen

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River flowing into the Mare Tyrrhenum  to the south of Barcino(na) in the territory of the Laietani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,21; Ptol. 2,6,18), modern Llobregat. Upstream is the city of Rhoubrikata (Ῥουβρικάτα; Ptol. 2,6,74), modern Rubí. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 134.

Complega

(55 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town, only mentioned in App. Hisp. 42f. in association with the Roman campaigns of 181-179 BC. A. Schulten [2. 136] identified C. with  Contrebia (C. a Celtic variant, not identical with  Complutum, as [1. 795]) still has. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 E. Hübner, s.v. C., RE IV, 794f. 2 A. Schulten, Numantia 1, 1914. Tovar 3, 340.

Lutia

(124 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Possibly modern Cantalucia near Osma in the Spanish province of Soria [1]. The name is presumably Iberian [2]. When in 134/3 BC the position of the fortress Numantia was besieged by the Romans and became untenable, the youth of L. was inclined to provide help to the Numantians who were in dire straits. But the elders betrayed this to Scipio, who hurried there and as punishment had the hands of 400 young men cut off (App. Hisp. 409-411). L. is mentioned on the bronze tablet of Luzaga as a member of an Arevacian league of cities and on coins ( lutaqs). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliog…

Pompaelo

(95 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City in the lands of the Vascones, modern Pamplona in Navarre, founded by Pompeius [I 3] (Str. 3,4,10: Πομπέλων ὡς ἂν Πομπηιόπολις/ Pompélōn hōs àn Pompēiópolis, 'Pompelon as if Pompeiopolis') in the winter of 75/4 BC during a war with Sertorius where the Tarraco-Oiasso (Str. l.c.) and Astorga-Roncevalles (It. Ant. 455,5) roads cross. Roman remains: street and drainage system, city wall, a macellum, building sites with mosaics, small finds. Inscriptions: CIL III 2958-2961. Episcopal see since the 6th cent. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, …

Althia

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] According to Pol. 3,13,5, the mightiest city of the  Olcades in the upper Guadiana valley, conquered by  Hannibal in 220 BC. Liv. 21,5,4 calls the city Cartala. Its location remains unknown. There is little likelihood that the proposed [1. 216] identification with today's Altea (Alicante province) is valid. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 G. V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72,1968,205-246. Tovar 3, 1989,185.

Mentesa

(111 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Name, possibly Iberian [1. 549], of two towns. [German version] [1] M. Bastitanorum (CIL II 3377f.; 3380), modern La Guardia, south east of Castulo (Plin. HN 3,9; 19; 25; It. Ant. 402,4). Mint and bishopric in the Visigothic period. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Town beside modern Villanueva de la Fuente (Μέντισα; Méntisa). Probably near the modern Villanueva de la Fuente, close to the source of the Guadiana Menor, in the conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II p. 434f.; Plin. HN 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,59; CIL XI 3281-3284). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2. A. Schulte…

Palma

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia City in Maiorica (modern Majorca), the largest of the Baliares Islands, founded in 122 BC after a victory over the local inhabitants by the consul Caecilius [I 19], subsequently Baliaricus, and named after the palm of victory (Str. 3,5,1; Mela 2,124; Plin. HN 3,77f.; Ptol. 2,6,78). It has the same name today. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, 277  TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 117.

Cartima

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern Cártama, province of Málaga. Iberian, according to [1. 1126] Celtiberian town; mainly epigraphically verified (CIL II 1949-1962; identical with Certima in Liv. 40,47,2?). In AD 53/54, it became a civitas libera (CIL II 1953: decemviri), under Vespasian a municipium civium Latinorum (CIL II 1956 and Suppl. 5488). According to inscriptions and extant remains (CIL II p. 248; Suppl. p. 876), C. also seems to have enjoyed prosperity later on. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 3. Tovar 1, 132.

Lagni

(93 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town near Numantia; name possibly Iberian [1]. For coin evidence cf. [2; 3]. Allied to Numantia, L. was conquered and destroyed by the consul Q. Pompeius in 141 BC (Diod. Sic. 33,17). L. may be identical to Malia (App. Hisp. 329); on the contradictory reports in the sources cf. [4]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 2, 1924, 64 3 A. Hübner, Monumenta linguae Ibericae, s.v. lagne, 1893, 38 4 H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 110. Tovar 3, 461.

Iberus

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Hiberus). Name of two Spanish rivers, derived from the people of the same name, not - as ancient scholars (Plin. HN 3,21; Just. Epit. 44,1,2) believed - the other way around [1. 307-315]. [German version] [1] Modern Ebro Modern Ebro. All sources agree that the ancient I., with its tributaries, corresponds almost completely to the modern Ebro. The single difference: the ancient river was navigable (Plin. HN 3,21) as far as Vareia (modern Varea, east of Logroño), today only as far as Tortosa (other, newer views contradict this ident…

Numantia

(488 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Pyrenean peninsula City in northern central Spain at the confluence of the rivers Duero, Merdancho and Tera on a hill (Muela de Garray, 67 m above river level), 6 km from Soria (Castilla la Vieja plateau). It had been settled since the late Neolithic (about 2000 BC) and in the Bronze Age. The adjoining Iron Age settlement from about 850 BC bears all the hallmarks of the more recent Hallstatt Culture, particularly from the 5th cent. [3. vol. 2, 110-113, 225ff.]. In the 4th/3rd cents. BC the place was fortified. N. (pr…
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