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Palantia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Principal town of the Vaccaei (ILS 6096; Plin. HN 3,26; Mela 2,88; It. Ant. 449; Παλλαντία/ Pallantía: Str. 3,4,13; App. Ill. 231 ( et al.); Ptol. 2,6,50; Orus. 7,40,8), modern Palencia on the Carrión river in Castilla la Vieja. P. was repeatedly besieged in vain by the Romans in the Celtiberian Wars (153-134 BC). After being subjugated, P. was one of the peregrine communities of the conventus Cluniensis (Plin. l.c.). In AD 409 the Vandals, Suebi and West Goths (Goti) advanced across of the territory of P., plundering as they went (Orus. l.c.): The city was destroyed by …

Celtiberi

(325 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] It used to be the accepted view that C. were ‘Iberian Celts’, i.e. Celts who had migrated into Iberian lands (first in Str. 3,4,5). A. Schulten, by contrast, postulated that they were ‘Celtic Iberians’, i.e. Iberians who had advanced from the east coast into Celtic areas. The C. inhabited a large part of the central Spanish plateau (Meseta). They never formed a political unit; of significance in this context is the fact that they had no collective name for referring to themselves.…

Termes

(146 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Τέρμες/ Térmes). City in the territory of the Celtiberic Arevaci (Plin. HN 3,27; Flor. Epit. 2,19,9; Ptol. 2,6,56), at modern Tiermes (Montejo de Liceras). With Numantia a focus of the Celtiberic Wars in 154-133 BC. T. also asserted itself after the fall of Numantia in 133 BC and was not occupied until 98 BC by T. Didius [I 4] (App. Ib. 431). The latter caused the inhabitants of T. to resettle in the Sobre valley. Remains of a Celtiberic settlement on sandstone rocks survive: rock habitations, rock walls, necropolis in Carratiermes (6th cent. BC to 1st cent. AD…

Pyrenaei Portus

(65 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Port on the northeast coast of Spain, to the north of Rhode (modern Ciutadella de Roses), where Cato [1] broke his voyage to his province of Hispania Citerior in 195 BC (Liv. 34,8,5). PP probably corresponds to Portus Veneris (modern Port-Vendres on Cape Béar). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography J. Jannoray, s. v. Portus Veneris (1), RE 22, 411-418, bes. 415 f.

Bastetani, Bastuli

(103 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The name of this tribe from southern Spain is probably derived from the city of Basti (today's Baza), which must be its principal location (Ptol. 2,6,13; 60). After his conquest of Carthago Nova in AD 207, P.  Scipio sent his brother L. to the B., where the latter defeated the Carthaginian  Mago (Liv. 28,1f.; Zon. 9,8,8). On the role of the B. in the revolt of  Viriatus, cf. App. Ib. 66. There is evidence for Bastetania still for the time of the West Goths, when Leovigild fought the Byzantines there (Chron. min. 2,212,3). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3,26f.

Consabura

(75 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Remains of this probably Celtic town [1. 1105] near Consuegra south of Toledo (CIL II p. 431; [3. 177]). Frontin. Str. 4,5,19 mentions C. in the context of the war with Sertorius in 78 BC. Other attestations: Plin. HN 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,57; It. Ant. 446,6; Geogr. Rav. 313,15; CIL II 2,2166; 4211. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1  E. Hübner, s.v. C., RE IV I, 889 3 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4, 1937. Tovar 3, 222-224.

Arevaci

(62 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberians, who settled in Old Castile (Soria province), first mentioned in conjunction with the Numantine War (cf. Pol. 35,2); under the leadership of  Viriatus and  Sertorius, they put up stubborn resistance to the Romans. In imperial times, they provided cavalry units for the Roman army (CIL XVI 26 ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography W. Schüle, Die Meseta-Kulturen der iberischen Halbinsel, 1969.

Aeso

(66 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town of the  Lacetani, modern Isona, part of the conventus Tarraconensis (Plin. HN 3,23) and enrolled in the tribus Quirina, minted coins with the Iberian legend E-S-O [1. II,63; MLI, 32]. An episcopus ecclesiae Aesonensis took part in the sixth Council of Toledo (Conc. 6; Fuentes Históricas Aragonenses 9,294). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives y Escudero, La moneda hispánica, 1926. Tovar 3, 1989, 451.

Salo

(94 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Right tributary of the Iberus [1] (modern Ebro) in Celtiberia (Celtiberi), modern Jalón. In its course, it passes Ocilis, Arcobriga, Aquae Bilbilitanorum, Bilbilis, Nertobriga [1] and Allobone. Its ice-cold water was especially suited for tempering iron (Mart. 1,49,12; 4,55,15; 12,21,1). In the Celtiberian Wars (2nd cent. BC), its valley was the base of operations for the Romans (App. Hisp. 188 ff.; [1]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 W. V. Harris, Roman Expansion in the West III. Spain, in: CAH 8, 21989, 118-142. Schulten, Landeskunde 2, 314 f.  TIR K 3…

Lacobriga

(186 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
There were three towns of this Celtic [1] name. [German version] [1] Town in the north of Palantia In the territory of the Vaccaei, north of Palantia in northern Spain ([2]; Plin. HN 3,26; Ptol. 2,6,49; It. Ant. 395,1; 449,3; 454,1). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Lusitanian town near modern Lagos Lusitanian town (Plut. Sertorius 13,7; Ptol. 2,5,5; Mela 3,7). Many remains on the Monte de Figuerola near modern Lagos in the Algarve [3], possibly identical to the diocese Laniobrensis ecclesia, mentioned often in ecclesiastical documents [2. 134; 4; 5; 6]. Barceló, Pedro (Po…

Damania

(117 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (name on Iberian coins [1. no. 86]: dmaniu) was an oppidum stipendiarium of the conventus of Caesaraugusta (Plin. HN 3,24) and part of the tribe of the Sedetani or Edetani (Ptol. 2,6,62); Hübner [2] presumes here that there were two different tribes while Schulten sees both as one (cf. [3. 229]). In spite of inscriptions (CIL II 2960; 3990; 4249) its position cannot be ascertained more exactly. Spanish local researchers have identified it as modern Mediana (province of Zaragoza), others as Domeño (province of Valencia) [4. 859]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography…

Gigurri

(161 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Georres, Giorres). In Valdeorras on the upper Sil (Province of Orense) the inscription ILS I 2079 was found on which a Roman soldier with the Celtic epithet (according to [2. 1089]) Reburrus is called Gigurrus Calubrigensis. Calubriga is the (according to [1. 705]) Celtic name of an unknown town (assumptions in this regard in [3. 95]). The Asturian tribe of the G. is mentioned on several occasions (Plin. HN 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,37; Geogr. Rav. 4,45). As Valdeorras was called Val de Geurrez or Jurrez in the Middle Ages…

Corduba

(334 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Limes | Pyrenean peninsula | Rome | Rome The modern Córdoba on the bank of the Guadalquivir ( Baetis), which is navigable from C. to its mouth; the city lies at the centre of a region of highly fertile soils. C. also owes its significance to favourable transport links, the old via Herculea, and the surrounding mining industry. The region contained important centres of the Tartessian culture in pre-Roman times (Colina de los Quemados, Montoro). The …

Dertosa

(295 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Punic Wars In the 6th cent. BC the rich trading city of Tyrichae lay on the mouth of the Ebro (Avien. Ora maritima 498-503). A ‘very rich’ city is again mentioned there for 215 BC: Hibera (Liv. 23,28,10). It is doubtless identical with the later Hibera Iulia Ilercavonia (for the tribe Ilercavones see [4. 1092]) D. (according to [1. 1269], Iberian, according to [2. 63; 3. 4, 233f.], Ligurian). According to Livy, Hibera lay on the southern bank and this is consistent with the favour…

Lyco

(56 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Stadt der Bastetani, Name wohl iberisch. Die genauere Lage ist nicht festzustellen, die Identifikation mit Ilugo, Ilucia, Ἴλουνον/ Ílunon bleibt problematisch [1]. Bei L. fügten die Lusitani L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus 190 v.Chr. schwere Verluste zu (Liv. 37,46,7). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (Hrsg.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 199ff. Tovar 3, 157.

Oretani

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Keltiberischer Stamm im Gebiet des mittleren und oberen Guadiana und am Nordhang der Sierra Morena ( Oretana iuga, Plin. nat. 3,6) mit Zentrum in Oretum, 33 km westl. von Valdepeñas am Jabalón [1; 2], erstmals erwähnt unter den Truppen, die Hannibal [4] 219 v.Chr. zur Sicherung der Metagonia und Karthagos nach Afrika schickte (Ὀρῆτες Ἴβηρες, Pol. 3,33,9, evtl. zur Unterscheidung von den im selben Gebiet ansässigen Ωρητανοί, Ptol. 2,6,58, bzw. O. Germani, Plin. nat. 3,25 [3. 29721]). In westgot. Zeit (6./7. Jh.n.Chr.) erscheint das Bistum Oretum und die Oretana ec…

Gigurri

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] (Georres, Giorres). In Valdeorras am oberen Sil (Prov. Orense) hat man die Inschr. ILS I 2079 gefunden, auf der ein röm. Soldat mit dem kelt. Beinamen (nach [2. 1089]) Reburrus als Gigurrus Calubrigensis gen. wird. Calubriga ist der (nach [1. 705]) kelt. Name einer unbekannten Stadt (Vermutungen darüber bei [3. 95]). Der asturische Stamm der G. wird mehrfach erwähnt (Plin. nat. 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,37; Geogr. Rav. 4,45). Da Valdeorras im MA Val de Geurrez oder Jurrez hieß (s. [3] und ILS a.O.), ist nicht zu bezweif…

Arx Gerontis

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Ortsname, geht zurück auf Geron/ Theron, einen König von Tartessos ( fani est prominens et ... Gerontis arx est eminens: Avien. ora maritima 261; 263; 304). Das Heiligtum soll im Mündungsgebiet des Baetis gelegen haben [1. 237], die A. südl. davon, möglicherweise auf der Halbinsel Salmedina, von der h. nur noch einige vom Meer überflutete Klippen übrig sind [2. 39, 41, Karte 1; 1. 236f.]. Sie wurde nach einer späteren Quelle (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,767) ἄκρα Γλαύκου genannt, König Geron also mit dem…

Murgis

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: City in southern Spain, since the Augustan provincial reform on the border between Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis. The city's name, according to [2], is Iberian. Its location on the Campo de Dalias, 31 km to the west of Almería, is documented in inscriptions (CIL II Suppl. 5489f.; cf. Plin. HN 3,8; 17, Baeticae finis; Itin. Anton. 405,2; Ptol. 2,4,9; [2. 84f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 2, 1974 2 Holder, s.v. M.

Ercavica

(165 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian settlement. The origin of the name is uncertain: it may be Celtiberian ([1. 1485] or Basque [2. 72]). Despite being attested in several sources, the precise location of E. cannot be established ([3]: on the Cabeza del Griego west of Cuenca? A contrary view is [2. 331,5]; cf. also CIL II p. 419, 425). It belonged to the conventus of Caesaraugusta (Plin. HN 3,24; CIL II 4203). The nobilis et potens civitas (‘noble and mighty city’) surrendered in 179 BC without resistance to the propraetor Tib. Gracchus (Liv. 40,50,1). It was a municipium (coins: [4. 109]) an…
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