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Iphicrates

(278 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἰφικράτης; Iphikrátēs). Son of Timotheus, an Athenian from Rhamnous, and an important general in the first half of the 4th cent. BC. In the Corinthian War, I. achieved prominence by creating a powerful corps of peltasts with which he operated in the Peloponnese between 393 and 390 and annihilated a Spartan  

Lysias

(2,221 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Λυσίας; Lysías). [German version] [1] Attic logographos, 5th/4th cent. BC Attic logographos , 459/8 or c. 445 to c. 380 BC Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] A. Life The main biographical facts can be gathered from L.'s speeches (esp. or. 12), from which the later vitae (Dion. Hal. de Lysia; Ps.-Plut. Mor. 835c ff.) and Byzantine learning (Phot. Bibl. 262; Suda s.v. L.) drew partly. Born probably around 445, L. left Athens at the age of 15 and together with his older brother Polemarchus settled in the Panhellenic colony o…

Timolaus

(536 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμόλαος/ Timólaos). [German version] [1] From Corinth, politician, c. 400 BC Leading politician of Corinth. At first on the side of the Spartans, he managed to convince Thasos in 411/10 BC to secede from Athens [1. 216-231]. Later, he changed course for personal reasons [2. 83 against 3. 73 f.]: in 395 BC, he advocated an alliance with Argos and due to his expertise [4. 411] became a moving force in the Corinthian Alliance (Stv 2, 225…

Ismenias

(791 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἰσμηνίας; Ismēnías or Ἱσμηνίας; Ismēnías). [German version] …

Onomacles

(98 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνομακλῆς/ Onomaklês). Athenian politician. As strategos, he led a squadron to Samos in 412/1 BC and against Miletus (Thuc. 8,25,1; 30,2). After the oligarchic coup, he belonged to the council of 400 ( tetrakósioi ), but in 411 was indicted in an eisangelía trial and escaped to avoid conviction (Plut. Mor. 833f) [1. 385]. O. later returned to Athens and belonged to the thirty ( triákonta ; Xen. Hell. 2,3,2). Lysias ( Perí tēs Onomakléous thygatrós, fr. 104 Thalheim) mentioned his daughter. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 B. Bleckmann, Athens Weg in die Niederlage, 1998. …

Synodos

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Gerber, Simon (Kiel)
(ἡ σύνοδος/ hē sýnodos; literally 'meeting', 'the synod'). Greek name for assemblies and meetings of various kinds; see Associations. [German version] I. Greek public law As a term in Greek public law, synodos means in general the meeting in rotation of representatives or citizens as a whole to exercise political powers in a body of federal states [1.1318f.]. In the Achaean Confederacy (Achaeans, Achaea) of the Hellenistic Period, synodos was the customary term for the central decision organ: initially the full assembly of citizens, which convened four times a year [2.223f.], after the constitutional reform at the end of the 3rd cent. BC, the synhédrion of representatives f…

Tagos

(144 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ταγός; tagós). Tagos (etymologically from táxis, cf. German Herzog) is usually seen as an elected (originally for life, later in the event of war: IG IX 2,257) highest official of the Thessalian League [1. 237-249; 2]. The effect of the dominance of the noble 'clans' (Aleuadae; Echecratidae; Scopadae) in the 5th cent. BC was that the office of tageía lost its significance [3. 125-127]; under Iason [2] the office temporarily gained a new prestige [5]. Recent studies, in contrast, see tagos as a genuinely local official (the official term for a high office instead being a…

Mnaseas

(244 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale)
(Μνασέας; Mnaséas). [German version] [1] Politician Phocian, father of Aristotélous hetaíros (‘companion of Aristoteles [6]’) Mnason (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 11; Aristot. Pol. 1304a 10-14). Aristotle says the cause of the Third “Sacred War” was a dispute between M. and Euthycratus over an heiress, but this explanation (probably originating from Mnason) is considered inadequate. After the death of Onomarchus, in 352/1 BC Phayllus appointed M. guardian of Phalaecus and stratēgós, but he was killed shortly afterwards during a nocturnal attack by the Boeotians (Diod. 16,38,6f.). Beck, Ha…

Phalaecus

(335 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φάλαικος; Phálaikos). [German version] [1] Phocian army officer Son of Onomarchus. P., while a minor, was deployed in 352 BC by his uncle Phayllus [1] as fourth stratēgòs autokrátōr ('general or executive with special powers of authority') of the Phocians in the 3rd Sacred War. Mnaseas [1] was appointed as his guardian but died as early as 351 (Diod. Sic. 16,38,6f.). After an inconclusive series of battles against Thebes, P. was deposed in 347, apparently because of his opposition to the Phocians' attempts to make peace (…

Sparton

(70 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Σπάρτων; Spártōn). Theban general of the Boeotian contingents that inflicted a heavy defeat on the Athenians at Coronea in 447 BC. The victory levelled the way for the founding of the Boeotian League (Boeotia B.). S.'s name alludes to the Sparti (Plut. Agesilaos 19,2; cf.  Thuc. 1,113,2; Diod.  Sic. 12,6,2; Xen. Mem. 3,5,4). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography D. R. Shipley, A Commentary on Plutarch's Life of Agesilaos, 1997, 239.

Neogenes

(42 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νεογένης/ Neogénēs) from Euboea. In about 378/7 BC with the help of Iason [2] of Pherae he established a tyranny in Histiaea, but was expelled soon after by the population with Spartan help (Diod. Sic. 15,30,3f.). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Timocrates

(593 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Τιμοκράτης/ Timokrátēs). [German version] [1] From Sparta, advisor of Cnemus, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Spartan, one of the three advisors of the nauarchos Cnemus who, following the defeat off the Acarnanian coast in 429 BC, were supposed to make strategic and logistical preparations for a new naval battle (Thuc. 2,85,1). T. committed suicide after the devastating defeat in 429 against the Athenian fleet near Naupactus (Thuc. 2,92,3). Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhod…

Ptoeodorus

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Πτωιόδωρος/ Ptōiódōros, MSS Πτοιόδωρος/ Ptoiódōros). [German version] [1] Exiled Theban, c. 425/4 BC Exiled Theban; c. 425/4 BC, ringleader of a combined Athenian action against Siphae and Delium [1] intended to topple the oligarchic government of the Boeotian League (Thuc. 4,76,2 f.). The undertaking failed miserably.…

Nicophemus

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Koine Eirene

(572 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κοινὴ εἰρήνη; koinḕ eirḗnē). ‘Common peace’, multilateral peace concept of the 4th cent. BC. Characteristics are demands for the autonomy ( autonomía ) of the polis as well as compulsoriness for all, that is, not only for the warring Greek states [1. XVI]. In contemporary sources, the term is attested only rarely, first in Andocides (3,17; 34, in the year 392/1), who advocated a κ.ε. πᾶσι τοῖς Ἕλλησι (‘Koine Eirene for all Greeks’). One such …

Telliads

(26 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τελλιάδαι; Telliádai). Family of seers in Elis (Hdt. 9,37). Hegesistratus [2] and Tellias are known by name (Hdt. 8,27,3-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Thessali, Thessalia

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | COR.SCH.
(Θεσσαλία/ Thessalía 'Thessaly'; Θεσσαλοί/ Thessaloí 'Thessalians', also Θεθαλοί/ Thethaloí and Φεταλοί/ Phetaloí or Πετθαλοί/ Petthaloí: [6]). [German version] I. Geography Northern Greek tribe/territory between Macedonia, Epirus and central Greece. At 9,790 km2, the region of the tetrads of Thessaliotis, Hestiaiotis, Pelasgiotis and Phthiotis (1) was the largest Greek tribal region (Str. 9,4,18). Surrounded by high mountain chains: to the north Olympus [1] (2,918 m), to the west the Pindus [1], to the south the Othrys and t…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Keryx

(287 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κῆρυξ/ kêryx, ‘crier’, herald). Sometimes synonymous with ἄγγελος ( ángelos) or πρεσβευτής ( presbeutḗs), without any strict distinction. The functions of the kêryx encompass political, diplomatic, judicial and ritual matters (cf. Poll. 8,103). In the Homeric age kḗrykes appear as heralds of basileús as well as servers in sacrificial rites (Hom. Il. 1,320-336; 3,116-120). The high regard in which they were held apparently dates back to the Mycenaean age (Linear B ka-ru-ke) [1; 2]. With the development of the polis authorities, the kêryx increasingly took on th…

Myscon

(43 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Μύσκων/ Mýskōn). Syracusan, son of Menecrates; after the banishment of Hermocrates [1] in 410 BC, he took over command of the Syracusan fleet off Miletus along with two other strategoi (Thuc. 8,85,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,29; Peloponnesian War). Beck, Hans (Cologne)
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