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(137 words)

Author(s): Berger, Rupert
[English Version] Stab, Stütze des Alters, Zeichen der Macht (Ex 4,2ff.; 2Kön 4,29); mit der Krümme des S. hält der Hirt die Herde zus. (Ps 23,4). Der Altersstab der Mönche wird zum Abtsstab, erstmals für Columba d.J. bezeugt. Der Bischofsstab, vermutlich aus byz. Beamtenzeremoniell übernommen, entstand als außerliturgisches Zeichen der Jurisdiktion (bezeugt bei Caesarius von Arles), seit dem 9.Jh. bei der Investitur auch vom König überreicht. Erst das Pontifikale des Wilhelm Durandus von Mende ge…


(162 words)

Author(s): Berger, Rupert
[German Version] ( liturgical). Indicative of a bond in its self-contained, closed form, the betrothal ring was adopted in church ritual in the Eastern and Western churches, and in the West became a wedding ring. By analogy, in the consecration of virgins and their profession it is placed on the finger of members of women’s orders as a sign of their spiritual marriage to Christ. The bishop’s ring, first attested in Isidore of Seville, was at first a signet ring, expressing the authority of office. …


(172 words)

Author(s): Berger, Rupert
[German Version] a support for the elderly and a token of power (Exod 4:2ff.; 2 Kgs 4:29); a shepherd uses the crook of his staff to keep his flock together (Ps 23:4). The staff used as a means of support by elderly monks turned into an abbatial staff, first attested in the case of St. Columbanus. The bishop’s staff or crozier, probably borrowed from official Byzantine ceremonial, developed as an extra-liturgical token of jurisdiction (first attested for Caesarius of Arles); from the 9th century on, it was conferred by the king at investiture. The first mention ¶ of the episcopal crozier in…


(142 words)

Author(s): Berger, Rupert
[English Version] Ring, liturgisch. In seiner in sich geschlossenen Form Zeichen der Bindung, wurde der R. bei der Verlobung in Ost und West in das kirchl. Ritual übernommen und wurde im Westen zum Trauring. Analog bei Jungfrauenweihe und Profeß wird er den Ordensfrauen als Zeichen der geistl. Vermählung mit Christus angesteckt. Der Bischofsring, erstmals bezeugt bei Isidor von Sevilla, war zunächst Siegelring, Ausdruck der Amtsvollmacht; seit dem 12.Jh. schmückender Teil der liturgischen Kleidung …

Christ the King, Feast of

(115 words)

Author(s): Berger, Rupert
[German Version] is an “idea” feast that was conceived around 1870 in the vicinity of the French pilgrimage center of Paray-le-Monial. Formally added to the feast day calendar in the jubilee year 1925, it was received with enthusiasm, especially on the part of young people resisting the ideology of National Socialism. Initially celebrated on the Sunday before All Saints' Day (Nov 1), it was moved to the last Sunday of the church year in 1970. In keeping with the eschatological character of the season, it looks forward to the second coming of the Kyrios. Rupert Berger Bibliography J.A. Jungm…

Liturgical Implements

(799 words)

Author(s): Berger, Rupert | Plank, Peter
[German Version] I. Western Church – II. Eastern Church I. Western Church From the very outset, celebration of the Lord's Supper (Eucharist/Communion: IV) required a cup for the wine and a dish for the bread (II). Initially simply chosen from whatever household utensils were available, over the course of time they were gradually withdrawn from everyday use and came to be made of precious materials. Finally their particular requirements (ease of holding and passing) led to the chalice and paten (liturgical…