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Fausta

(104 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Flavia Maxima F., daughter of Emperor Maximian and Eutropia; when still a minor, at the end of AD 307, she was married to Constantinus [1] in order to reinforce the alliance between Maximian and Constantine, after the former had returned to politics. Mother of three emperors: Constantinus [2], Constantius [2] and Constans [1]. At the end of 324 she was elevated with Helena to the rank of Augusta, but a little later, in circumstances that remain unexplained, killed by order of her imperial husband. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography PLRE 1, 325f. J. W. Drijvers, F…

Constantina

(154 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Eldest daughter of Constantine [1] the Great, she was married in 335 to  Hannibalianus and presumably not meant to be made Augusta until after Constantinus'death (Philostorg. Hist. Eccl. 3,22). After the murder of Hannibalianus she lived in the part of the empire ruled by Constans [1]. She was involved in Vetranio’s elevation to Caesar in 350 and in the following year married her cousin  Gallus, by then Caesar. She reigned with him in Antioch and took active part in matters of gov…

Romula

(118 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Mother of the emperor Galerius [5] Maximianus. According to Lactantius, her devotion to the mountain gods strongly influenced her son's anti-Christian politics (De mort. pers. 11,1 f.). Her significance in Galerius's dynastic self-presentation is evident in an anecdote about his conception (Ps.-Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 40,17) which was modelled after that of Alexander [4] the Great (Olympias [1]) as well as in the fact that he named the imperial residence Romuliana (modern Gamzigrad…

Maxentius

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] From 28 October 306 to 28 October 312, Valerius Maxentius ruled over Italy and Africa as emperor but was not recognised by his co-rulers of the 3rd tetrarchy. As the son of the western Augustus, Maximianus [1], and Eutropia [1] he could be seen as successor (Pan. Lat. 10,14,1), especially since - through his marriage (certainly later than 293) to Valeria Maximilla [1], the daughter of Galerius [5] and (through Valeria) granddaughter of Diocletianus - he was also connected to the I…

Panes aedium

(97 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] ('House-bread') was a special bread ration granted - within the general framework of the system of grain and bread distribution ( annona civica) to the civilian populations of the two capitals, Rome and Constantinople  - to individuals who had built a house at Constantinople. The privilege, established by Constantine (Constantinus [1]) and confirmed by Constantius [2] II, served to ensure the rapid growth of Constantinople. Legislation (Cod. Theod. 14,17,1 and 12) regulating whether the privilege could be passed on to heirs or purchasers is contradictory. Bleckm…

Temonarius

(203 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] ( temonarius equus, literally 'leading horse of a team'). One responsible for payment of taxes. From the time of Diocletianus (AD 284-305) onwards the conscription of recruits was to some extent integrated into the capitatio- iugatio taxation system: Land owners, usually several, belonging to a taxation unit had to supply one recruit annually or advance the sum needed to raise recruits ( adaeratio ). In yearly rotation one from among the land owners was designated temonarius or capitularius (payer of poll tax), who provided the recruit or the corresponding…

Laterculus Veronensis

(76 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] List - named after a badly corrupted MS from Verona of the 7th cent. AD - of the Roman provinces classified according to dioceses directly in accordance with the new order of Diocletianus (with map; c. AD 313) as well as (§ 13) of the ‘barbarian’ peoples on the northern border of the Roman empire. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine, 1982, 202f. (ed.).

Musonianus

(123 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Fl. Strategius M., of humble origin, served as an interpreter at the court of Constantinus [1] I and received from him the cognomen M. because of his learnedness (Amm. 15,13,1-2). He continued his career under Constantius [2] II: as a comes he supported the emperor in ecclesiastical policy. In AD 349 he was praeses (governor) of Thebes, in 350 proconsul of Constantinople, in 353 proconsul of Achaia, finally in 354-358  praefectus praetorio Orientis, with seat of office in Antioch. From there he conducted secret negotiations with the satrap Tamsapor o…

Senecio

(51 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Brother of Bassianus [3], allegedly incited him to rebel against Constantinus [1] (Anon. Vales. 15). Whether he can be identified with the dux S. recorded by ILS 664 as in Noricum in 310 AD is the subject of discussion. PLRE 1, 820 (S. 1). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)

Calocaerus

(53 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Magister camelorum (Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,11: perhaps in the sense of ‘leading shepherd slave’) on Cyprus. The revolt of AD 334 (?), which he led, was of only local significance and quickly suppressed, C. himself sentenced in Tarsus by  Dalmatius (PLRE 1, 177). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography Kienast, 21996, 308f.

Hannibalianus

(197 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Afranius H. Cos. ord. AD 292 Officer in Probus' staff (HA Probus 22,3), in AD 285, praefectus praetorio alongside Asclepiodotus, in 292 consul ordinarius again with Asclepiodotus, in 297-8 praefectus urbi. Perhaps the father of Maximian's stepdaughter  Theodora. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Half-brother of Constantinus [1] beginning 4th cent. AD Half-brother of  Constantinus [1] († AD 337) from the marriage between Constantius [1] and Theodora. Unlike his brothers Dalmatius [1] and Iulius Constantius [4], H…

Eutropia

(83 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Wife of emperor Maximianus, about AD 320 Wife of Emperor Maximianus. Mother of Maxentius and Fausta ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 40,12). After AD 324, she spent some time as a Christian pilgrimess in Palestine and drew Constantine's attention to the desecration of the holy place of Mambre (Eus. Vita Const. 3,52). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Half-sister of Constantine Half-sister of Constantine. Mother of Nepotianus, who in AD 350 was declared Augustus in Rome. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)

Martinianus

(62 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Magister officiorum of Licinius [II 4]; after the fall of Hadrianopolis [3] (3 July AD 324), Licinius made him Augustus (incorrectly Caesar in the literary sources). After Licinius's capitulation, Martianus was banished to Cappadocia, where he was executed in 325. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography PLRE 1, 563 M. Clauss, Der magister officiorum in der Spätantike (4.-6. Jh.), 1980, 171.

Diocletianus

(1,598 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] A. Origin and career Roman emperor AD 284-305. Full name (first adopted after his elevation): C. Aurelius Valerius D. (CIL III 22), previously Diocles (Lactant. De mort. pers. 9,11; 19,5; 52,3; Lib. Or. 19,45f.; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 39,1; POxy 3055). Born in 241 or 244 in Dalmatia (Malalas 311 Bonn; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 39,1), presumably in Salona (Theoph. 10,13 de Boor). In a purely military career he advanced to the position of dux Moesiae (Zon. 12,31) and after that to commander of the bodyguard ( protectores domestici) of Emperors Carus and Numerianus (Zo…

Theotecnus

(83 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] (Θεότεκνος; Theóteknos). Curator civitatis ( logistḗs; Logistaí ) of Antioch [1]  c. 312 AD; instigated there a city petition to Maximinus [1] Daea to resume the persecution of Christians (Tolerance E.); later, as governor of Syria (?) and initiator of an oracle site of Zeus, he was a leading adviser of Maximinus on religious policy; Licinius [II 4] had him executed, because of his closeness to Maximinus rather than his religious conviction, in 313 AD (Eus. HE 9,11,6). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)

Crispus

(224 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iulius C. Son of the Emperor Constantine, 317 AD The eldest son of Constantine [1] from the liaison with Minervina, born c. AD 300; elevated together with his half-brother Constantius [2] II and Licinianus Licinius to the rank of caesar on 1 March 317 in Serdica. Unlike his brother he also became a princeps iuventutis in the same year and in 318 he was the first of the newly elevated caesars to be made consul. C., who was obviously groomed to be the successor, was sent to Gaul with his own praef. praet. after his elevation as caesar. He married Helen, an otherw…

Constantia

(304 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Flavia Iulia C. Daughter of Constantinus [1], wife of Licinius Daughter of Constantius [1] I and Theodora, half-sister of Constantine [I], betrothed in 312 to  Licinius (Lactant. De mort. pers. 43,2). The wedding took place early in 313 when Constantine and Licinius met in Milan (Lactant. De mort pers. 45,1; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 10,5,3; Anon. Vales. 13; Zos. 2,17). The issue of this marriage was a son, Licinianus Licinius, born in July 315. In 316 she accompanied her husband in his war against her half-brother, and fled with h…

Dioikesis

(730 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
(διοίκησις ; dioíkēsis, Lat. dioecesis). [German version] I. Greece ‘Housekeeping’ in the sense of administration, especially in the financial realm. Dioikesis is used for the administration of the state in general (for example, Pl. Prt. 319d; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 43,1), also for the financial administration (for example, Xen. Hell. 6,1,2; Dem. Or. 24,96f.), and, in an extended sense by the author of the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia, for maintenance payments made by the state (24,3). In later 4th-cent. BC Athens, an office for the upper financial administr…

Dalmatius

(366 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Fl. D. Half-brother of the Emperor Constantine I Son of  Constantius [1] and Theodora, half-brother of Constantine I. Nothing is known of his role in the initial period of Constantine's rule, although presumably he was given Toulouse as his abode during the tensions with Licinius in c. AD 320-324 (Auson. Prof. 16,11-12). Consul in 333, he was sent to Antioch at around the same time with the archaizing title of censor (Athan. c. Ar. 65,1ff.). There he was concerned with murder accusations against Athanasius. In Tarsus he had  Calocaerus burnt to d…

Maximilla

(148 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] [1] Valeria Maximilla Daughter of Galerius and wife of Maxentius Daughter of Galerius [5] and wife of Maxentius. The marriage produced two sons, Valerius Romulus (died 309?) and another son who is mentioned along with her as late as 312 (Pan. Lat. 12,16,5). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography PLRE 1, 576 [German version] [2] Cofounder of Montanism in the 2nd cent. AD In the middle of the 2nd. cent. AD she founded, together with Montanus and Priscilla, the Christian revivalist movement of Montanism. She was also a writer (Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haeresium 8,…
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