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Bia

(153 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βία; Bía). Personification of violence; daughter of Pallas and the Styx, sister of Zelus, Nike and Cratus (Hes. Theog. 385-388). In the titanomachy Styx goes over to Zeus with her children and they then follow him. As Zeus' henchmen, Cratus and B. spur Hephaestus on to chain  Prometheus to a rock (Aesch. PV 1-87, in which B. plays a silent part). An Athenian scyphus shows  Ixion being bound to a wheel by Hephaestus, Cratus and B. [1]. Themistocles tells the people of Andros that h…

Chloe

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Χλόη; Chlóē). ‘Greening’; epiclesis of  Demeter (Ath. 14,618d/e). She had a shrine close to the Acropolis, where a ram was sacrificed to her (Paus. 1,22,3; Aristoph. Lys. 835; FGrH 328 F 6; Eupolis PCG V fr.196). She is also attested in Eleusis (IG II2 949,7), on Myconus (LSCG 96,11) and in the Tetrapolis (LSCG 20 B 49). An exuberant festival, the Chloia, placed by late antique theology at around springtime, was celebrated in her name (Cornutus, Theol. 28). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography A. B. Chandor, The Attic Festivals of Demeter and their Relation to the …

Catillus

(105 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Mythical founder of Tibur (Hor. Carm. 1,18,2; Sil. 4,225; Stat. Silv. 1,3,100). According to Cato (Orig. fr. 56 in Solin. 2,7) he was an Arcadian and fleet commander of Euander. A certain Sextius considered him to be an Argive (Solin. 2,7). He was the son of an Argive seer  Amphiaraus and upon the behest of his grandfather he moved to Italy as   ver sacrum . His three sons Tiburtus (Tibur/Tiburnus), Coras and C. drove the Sicans out of their town and then called it Tibur (Solin. ibid; Verg. Aen. 7,670 with Serv.; Hor. Carm. 2,6,5; Plin. HN 16,237). Bloch, René (Berne)

Damasichthon

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαμασίχθων; Damasíchthōn). [German version] [1] One of the sons of Niobe One of the sons of  Niobe (Apollod. 3,45) who like his brothers is killed by Apollo (Ov. Met. 6,254-260). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography F. Bömer, Kommentar zu Ov. met. 6-7,1976, 78. [German version] [2] Son of the Athenian Codrus Son of the Athenian Codrus. Together with his brother Promethus, who later murdered him, he was the leader of the Ionian colony in Colophon (Paus. 7,3,3). Bloch, René (Berne)

Caelus, Caelum

(121 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Translation of the Greek  Uranus (‘Heaven’). The genealogy of C. (Cic. Nat. D. 2,63.3,44; Hyg. Fab. praef. 2) corresponds with some variations to that in Hesiod. Varro (Ling. 5,57) named C. and Terra as the oldest of the deities. C. had no cult in Rome; inscriptions venerating him as aeternus (CIL VI 181-84; cf. also Vitr. 1,2,5) refer to foreign cults [1]. Graphically, C. is portrayed as a bearded man holding a garment above his head in the shape of an arch, as for example on the breast plate of the statue of Augustus of Prima Porta [2]. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 G. Wiss…

Egerius

(159 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Son of Arruns Son of Arruns, grandson of Demaratus. E. was only born after the death of his father and grandfather, which is why the entire fortune went to Arruns' brother Lucumo. His nephew supposedly received the name E. because of his poverty ( egere, ‘to suffer want’). When Lucumo later became Roman king with the name L. Tarquinius Priscus, E. was granted rule over the Latin town of Collatia by him and took the epithet Collatinus. His son L. Tarquinius Collatinus was the husband of  Lucretia (Liv. 1,34,2f.; 57,6; Dio…

Bitias

(92 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] [1] Companion of Aeneas B. and Pandarus, companions of Aeneas, are sons of Alcanor who were brought up by Iaera. Against Aeneas' command they open a gate of the Trojan encampment; consequently both are killed by Turnus (Verg. Aen. 9,672ff.; 722ff.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Man in Dido's retinue Man in Dido's retinue (Verg. Aen. 1,738). According to Serv. (commenting on this point), who drew on Livy, he was the commander of the Carthaginian fleet. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography Ph. Hardie, Virgil Aeneid Book IX, 1994, 213f.

Diomus

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δίομος; Díomos). Son of Colyttus, eponymous hero of the Attic deme  Diomea. D. is understood to be connected to the aetiology of the first ‘ox murder’ ( Bouphonia), although the name of the bull killer (βουτύπος; boutýpos) varies. D., priest of Zeus Polieus, was the first to kill an ox at the Dipolieia after the latter had eaten from the sacrificial grain (Porph. De abstinentia 2,10). The bull killer is also called Thaulon (Androtion FGrH 324 F 16) or Sopater (Porph. ibid. 2,29). D. also plays a central role in th…

Euthyphron

(119 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐθύφρων; Euthýphrōn). Athenian seer, a character in Plato's eponymous dialogue: Socrates, who has been summoned to court, meets E., who wants to see his father prosecuted for manslaughter by criminal negligence, because he has allowed a slave to die who had been guilty of murder. Socrates' reservations about this way of action lead to a debate on the nature of piety. E. is also mentioned in Pl. Crat. 396d; 399e; 428c. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography M. L. McPherran, Socratic Piety in the E., in: H. H. Benson (ed.), Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates, 1992, 220-241 A. …

Elate

(57 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἐλάτη; Elátē, ‘spruce’). Sister of the  Aloads Otus and Ephialtes. She was similar in stature to them. When she mourned the demise of her brothers she was transferred into a spruce tree towering to the sky (Lib. Narrationes 37; Eust. on Hom. Od. 5,239 and on Hom. Il. 5,560; 14,287). Bloch, René (Berne)

Echetus

(97 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔχετος; Échetos, ‘Holder’). Cruel king with whom the suitor Antinous threatened the beggar Irus and Odysseus (Hom. Od. 18,85; 116; 21,308; Suda s.v. E. 493 Adler). He blinded his daughter Amphissa (or Metope) and had her crush ore in a chamber; he dismembered her lover Aechmodicus (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1093 with schol.). Schol. Hom. Od. 18,85 (= Marsyas FGrH 135-136 F 19) explains that he was a Sicilian tyrant who tortured strangers, but who was eventually stoned by his own subjects. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography J. Russo et al., Homer's Odyssey, vol. 3 (comm.), 1992, 52f.

Euryalus

(331 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρύαλος; Eurýalos, ‘far-voyaging’ [1. 71, 195]); the name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] Argive hero An Argive hero, son of Mecisteus from Argos. He is mentioned both as one of the  Argonauts (Apollod. 1,113) and one of the Epigoni (sons of the seven heroes who fought in vain against Thebes; Apollod. 3,82; Paus. 2,20,5). E. marches against Troy with Diomedes and Sthenelus (Hom. Il. 2,566; 6,20-28 aristeia; Apollod. 1,103; Paus. 2,30,10). At the funerary games for Patroclus he is defeated in the boxing competition by Epius (Hom. Il…

Elymus

(77 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Trojan, eponymous forefather of the  Elymi. He came to Sicily either with Aegestus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,47; 52f.; Tzetz. schol. Lycoph. 965) or Aeneas (Str.13,1,53), and settled in the region around the  Eryx. Virgil, who refers to him as Helymus, depicts him as the winner in a competition (Verg. Aen. 5,73; 323). According to Serv. Aen. 5,73, he was the founder of the cities of Asca, Entella, and Egesta. Bloch, René (Berne)

Eunomia

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐνομία, Εὐνομίη; Eunomía, Eunomíē). Personification of good order. Along with  Dike and  Eirene she is one of the three  Horae (Hes. Theog. 901-902), the daughters of Zeus and Themis. Only in Alcman (PMG 64) is E. the daughter of Promatheia (‘foresight, consideration’) and sister of  Tyche and  Peitho. In her role as the guardian of peace (cf. Pind. Pyth. 5,66-67: eunomía apólemos, ‘unwarlike E.’), E. is praised particularly in times of crisis (Tyrtaeus IEG fr. 1-4; Solon IEG fr. 4, 32-39); in the 5th cent. (in the Peloponnesian War) E. b…

Chrysaor(i)us

(167 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χρυσάωρ; Chrysáōr). ‘He with the golden sword’ (Hes. Theog. 283). [German version] [1] Attribute of Zeus in Caria Attribute of Zeus in Stratoniceia (Caria), whose temple was the federal sanctuary of the Carian towns (Str. 14,660; CIG 2720f.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Eponymous hero of Caria Eponymous hero of Caria, which was also called Χρυσαορίς (Paus. 5,21,10). He was the son of the Sisyphid Glaucus (Steph. Byz. 461 Meineke). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Epithet of various gods Epithet of various gods: Apollo (Hom. Il. 5,509; 15,256 etc.), Arte…

Catenae

(155 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] A genre of Biblical commentaries first appearing in the 6th cent. AD, of which there were many examples in the Middle Ages. In the exegesis of Biblical texts, excerpts of extant commentaries by Church Fathers were reworked into ‘chain commentaries’ or catenae. The existence of several writings by the Church Fathers is only known through these catenae. If the excerpts are written on the margins of the manuscripts around the Biblical text, they are described as margin catenae, and if the commentary follows on from the text, they are known as broad catenae  Florilegium;  Sch…

B(o)ugenes

(79 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βουγενής; Bougenḗs). Under this name, which refers to the idea of  Dionysus as ‘born of a cow’, the god was proclaimed by the Argives from the Alcyonian Lake near Lerna to the resounding of trumpets (Paus. 2,37,5f.). In addition, a lamb was lowered into the water for the doorkeeper, Pylaochus. Plutarch's report (Is. 35 p. 364f.) is based on Socrates of Argos. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography G. Casadio, Storia del culto di Dioniso in Argolide, 1994, 223-251.

Ichthyophagi

(131 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἰχθυοφάγοι/ Ichthyophágoi, ‘fish-eaters’). Collective ethnographic term for coastal peoples who primarily live on fish. As a Utopian people residing at the ends of the then-known world, the I. are described as models of justice, but sometimes also as animal-like, living on a low civilizational level (Agatharchides of Cnidus, De Mari Erythro, fr. 31-49 = GGM 1, 129-141). Most frequently mentioned are the Ethiopian I. on the Red Sea, whom Herodotus reports as having been sent (in va…

Eridanus

(207 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριδανός/ Ēridanós, Latin Eridanus). [German version] [1] Personification of a river in the west of France or Spain Mythical river in the (north) west (northern Italy, south of France or Spain), son of  Oceanus and  Tethys (Hes. Theog. 338).  Phaeon plunged into the E. from his sun wagon and his sisters ( Heliades) were turned into black poplars on the banks of the E., and their tears into amber (Eur. Hipp. 736-741; Ov. Met. 2,324; 365; Hyg. Fab. 152; 154). Since Hesiod, the E. is associated with the creation of…

Chloris

(193 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χλωρίς, Χλῶρις; Chlōrís, Chlôris). [German version] [1] Goddess According to Ovid (Fast. 5,195ff.) the goddess  Flora was originally called C.; Zephyrus took her as his wife and made her goddess of flowers. This juxtaposition is an invention of Ovid. It was taken up by Lactantius (1,20,8) and by the Anthologia Latina (747R.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Niobe, the only one spared by Artemis Daughter of  Amphion [1] and  Niobe. She was the only one of the daughters of Niobe to be spared by Artemis, because she prayed to Leto. Her image …
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