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Demonassa

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δημώνασσα; Dēmṓnassa). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Argive seer Amphiaraus Daughter of the Argive seer  Amphiaraus and  Eriphyle, wife of  Thersander, a son of Polyneices, mother of Tisamenus (Paus. 3,15,8, 9,5,15). On the Cypselus Chest described by Pausanias she is shown standing with her siblings Eurydice and Alcmaeon before the house of Amphiaraus who is mounting the chariot (Paus. 5,17,7) [1]. On a late Corinthian crater that also depicts the departure of Amphiaraus the inscription calls her …

Demodice

(111 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δημοδίκη; Dēmodíkē). Second wife of the Boeotian king  Athamas and stepmother of Phrixus whom she pursues in unrequited love. Phrixus takes flight for this reason (Pind. fr. 49, Damodika; Schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,288a). Usually she is called  Ino (Apollod. 1,80-84). In another version she is the wife of Cretheus, brother of Athamas. She slanders Phrixus, who will not return her love, before Cretheus, whereupon he demands Phrixus' death from Athamas. However, Phrixus is removed by his mother  Nephele (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,20). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Angeli B…

Eridanus

(207 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριδανός/ Ēridanós, Latin Eridanus). [German version] [1] Personification of a river in the west of France or Spain Mythical river in the (north) west (northern Italy, south of France or Spain), son of  Oceanus and  Tethys (Hes. Theog. 338).  Phaeon plunged into the E. from his sun wagon and his sisters ( Heliades) were turned into black poplars on the banks of the E., and their tears into amber (Eur. Hipp. 736-741; Ov. Met. 2,324; 365; Hyg. Fab. 152; 154). Since Hesiod, the E. is associated with the creation of…

Moloch

(266 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (ְךֶלֹמ, molæk, LXX: Μολοχ/ Moloch, Vulg.: Moloch). M. is most probably the name of a Canaanite deity to whom children were supposedly sacrificed. However, it is difficult to determine how M. fit into the Canaanite pantheon (Malik? Milkom? Adad-Milki?). Referring to the Phoenician-Punic term for a sacrifice, mlk/ molk, Eissfeldt interpreted M. not as a god, but as a technical term for the sacrifice of children (or substitutes) [1]. But this view is contradicted by passages in which M. clearly referred to a god (cf. Lv 20:5). The Hebrew Bible explicitly forbids sacri…

Botres

(76 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βότρης; Bótrēs). Son of the Theban Eumelus. When the latter, in B.'s presence, is about to sacrifice a sheep to Apollo, B. eats the animal's brains before it is placed on the altar. Thereupon his father strikes him with a firebrand. Apollo, however, takes pity on him and turns him into the bird, Aeropus (Bee-eater), which broods in an underground nest and continually seeks to fly (Ant. Lib. 18). Bloch, René (Berne)

Educa

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Edula, Edusa, Edulia). Roman ‘special deity’ ( Indigitamenta), which, according to Varro (antiquitates rerum divinarum 114 Cardauns) was named in Christian Polemic (Tert. Ad nat. 2,11,8: Edula; Aug. Civ. 4,34; 6,9) together with  Potina. According to Varro in Non. 151, E. ( Edusa) supposedly watched over the food for the children. Sacrifices were made to her when children had their first meal. In Donat. Ter. Phorm. 1,1,15, her name is Edulia. According to [1], E. was originally a gens deity. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Altheim, Röm. Religionsgesch. 1,…

Euryganea

(52 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυγάνη, -εια; Eurygánē, -eia). In the  Oidipódeia of the Cyclic Epics the second wife of  Oedipus, after  Iocaste (Epicaste) commits suicide upon discovery of her incest. From her come the children that are elsewhere ascribed to Jocasta (Oedipodea, argumentum; fr. 2 PEG I; Apollod. 3,55). Bloch, René (Berne)

Balius

(134 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βάλιος, Βαλίας; Bálios, Balías) and Xanthus. Immortal horses of the Peleid  Achilles, who were born by the harpy Podarge to Zephyrus, god of the winds. Poseidon gave them to Peleus on his marriage to Thetis (Hom. Il. 16,148-154; Apollod. 3,170). Xanthus prophesied Achilles his approaching death (Hom. Il. 19,400-424). When he dies, B. and Xanthus want to leave the human sphere, but the gods order them to serve Achilles' son Neoptolemus and to carry him later to Elysium (Quint. Smyrn.…

Dolius

(114 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δόλιος; Dólios). [German version] [1] Epithet of Hermes ‘The cunning’, epithet of Hermes (Aristoph. Thesm. 1202; Soph. Phil. 133; Cornutus 16). On the road to Pellene there stood a statue of Hermes D. (Paus. 7,27,1). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Old slave of Penelope Old slave of  Penelope, who looked after her garden on Ithaca for her (Hom. Od. 4,735-741; 24,222). He put his sons at Odysseus' disposal for the battle with the relatives of the slain suitors (Hom. Od. 24,386-411; 492-501). According to Hom. Od. 17,212; 18,321f. …

Unicorn

(287 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (μονόκερως/ monókerōs, monoceros, unicornis). The unicorn was irrelevant to Graeco-Roman mythology; and it was not a theme in iconography (it is common, however, in mediaeval book illustration). Accounts of one-horned animals are more frequent, originating primarily from the Indian rhinoceros (Aristot. Hist. an. 2,1, 499b20; Aristot. Part. an. 3,2,663a20; Megasthenes FGrH 715 F 27b;  Ael. NA 3,41; 16,20; Plin. HN 8,76; 11,255). The main source was Ctesias of Cnidus, who was the first to describe in detail a fabulous one-horned wild ass in his Ἰνδικά ( Indiká = FGr…

Eunomia

(171 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐνομία, Εὐνομίη; Eunomía, Eunomíē). Personification of good order. Along with  Dike and  Eirene she is one of the three  Horae (Hes. Theog. 901-902), the daughters of Zeus and Themis. Only in Alcman (PMG 64) is E. the daughter of Promatheia (‘foresight, consideration’) and sister of  Tyche and  Peitho. In her role as the guardian of peace (cf. Pind. Pyth. 5,66-67: eunomía apólemos, ‘unwarlike E.’), E. is praised particularly in times of crisis (Tyrtaeus IEG fr. 1-4; Solon IEG fr. 4, 32-39); in the 5th cent. (in the Peloponnesian War) E. b…

Echion

(146 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχίων/ Echíōn, ‘Snake man’, from ἡ ἔχις/ échis, ‘the Snake’). [German version] [1] One of the five 'Spartoi', men who grew from dragon teeth One of the five ‘Spartoi’, the men who grew from the dragon teeth sown by  Cadmus into the Theban earth. He married Cadmus' daughter Agave and was the father of Pentheus (Paus. 9,5,3f.; Apollod. 3,26; 36; Hyg. Fab. 178,6; 184,1; Ov. Met. 3,126; cf. Hor. Carm. 4,4,64: Thebae Echioniae). Aeneas killed the Rutulian Onites, a son of E. and Peridia (Verg. Aen. 12,514f.). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography R. Rocca, s.v. E., EV 2, 164f. [German version] [2] Son…

Batieia, Bateia

(118 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βατίεια, Βάτεια; Batíeia, Báteia). Hill in front of the Scaean Gate of Troy between Scamander and Simois where the Trojans lined up for battle. The gods called it the ‘grave mound of far-jumping Myrina’ (Hom. Il. 2,811-815). Because of the epithet, B. was thought to be an Amazon (Str. 12,573). Lycophron designates the place itself as Myrina (Lycoph. 243). B. was supposedly the daughter of the first Trojan King Teucer and of the nymph Idaea, and the wife of Dardanus (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,62; Apollod. 3,139; Hellanicus FGrH g 4 F24; Diod. Sic. 4,75). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibli…

Caligo

(40 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of darkness, analogous to the Greek  Erebus and Skotos. She is the mother of  Chaos, and by him she is also mother of Nox, Dies, Erebos and Aether (Hyg. Fab. praef. 1). Bloch, René (Berne)

Basilinda

(101 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (βασιλίνδα; basilínda). Game in which a child is named king by drawing lots, and then the ‘king’ assigns roles to his playmates which they must act out (Poll. 9,110). It is similar to the game of kings of Cyrus as described by Herodotus, except for the fact that the king is elected there (Hdt. 1,114). The game is different from the ball game in which the winner is called the king and the loser is called the donkey (Poll. 9,106); another (different) children's game is mentioned by Horace (Epist. 1,1,59-60).  Ball games;  Children's games Bloch, René (Berne)

Echepolus

(78 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἐχέπωλος; Echépōlos, ‘Horse owner’). [German version] [1] Pelopid Pelopid, son of an Anchises from Sicyon. He gave Agamemnon the mare Aithe and thus bought his release from the journey to Troy (Hom. Il. 23,296 with schol.) Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, Hermes ES 14, 1960, 261. [German version] [2] Trojan A Trojan who was killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 4,458). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, vol. 1, 1988, 558-560.

Dictys

(316 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δίκτυς; Díktys). [German version] [1] Son of Magnes and a Naiad Son of Magnes and a Naiad, brother or half-brother to  Polydectes (Apollod. 1,88), the king of the island of Seriphos. Other sources stress his descent from Poseidon direct or in the fourth degree (Tzetz. Lycoph. 838; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 10f.). As a fisherman (D. = ‘netsman’) he lodges  Danae and her infant son  Perseus, who are swept onto the shore at Seriphos in a box. The story has been frequently staged [1]. In Aeschylus' satyr-play Diktyulkoi (TrGF 3 F 46-47) satyrs help D. and another fisherman to land the heav…

Charops

(182 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χάροψ; Chárops). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet by which Heracles was worshipped in Boeotia near the sanctuary of Zeus on Mount Laphystion. It was there that, in Boeotian tradition, he fetched Cerberus from the underworld (Paus. 9,34,5). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Grandfather of Orpheus Thracian; father of Oeagrus, grandfather of Orpheus. After the death of the Thracian King  Lycurgus, Dionysus appointed C. as one of his followers and initiated him into the Bacchic rites; C. then told the god of the assault pl…

Eurytion

(231 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Εὐρυτίων; Eurytíōn). Frequently used name of heroes and  centaurs. [German version] [1] Leader of the centaurs Thessalian centaur; in the house of Peirithous, while drunk on wine, he violates Peirithous' bride  Hippodamia, whereupon the Lapiths disfigure him; this leads to the conflict between  Lapithae and centaurs. The suitor  Antinous [1] holds E.'s fate up before Odysseus as a warning (Hom. Od. 21,295-304). Later too, E. as leader of the centaurs is frequently represented as a terrifying example (Thgn. 1,542). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Peloponnesian centaur Pel…

Empusa

(260 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Ἔμπουσα; Émpousa, etymology unclear [1]). Ghostly female figure ( phásma) who was remarkable for her ability to transform her appearance ( polýmorphos) and belonged to the group of spectral  Demons in Greek popular belief [2; 3] ( Lamia). She adopted various forms and in Aristoph. Ran. 285-295 appeared to Dionysus and his slave Xanthias, on their journey through the underworld [4], as a cow, a mule, a pretty woman and finally as a dog [5]. Her face was lit by fire, one leg was made of ore, the other …
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