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Macedonian Wars

(1,491 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
The name given to the three wars between Rome and the Macedonian kings Philippus V (215-205 and 200-197 BC) and Perseus (171-168). [German version] A. The First Macedonian War The origin of the First Macedonian War lies in the competing interests of the two powers on the Adriatic-Illyrian coast. In 229/8, Rome conducted a successful war against the Illyrian kingdom of queen Teuta in order to suppress piracy, and established friendly relations with cities, tribes and dynasts in this region. In 219, a conflict developed betwe…

Alexandra Salome

(129 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] 140-67 BC, first married to  Aristoboulus [1] I, then in her second marriage to  Alexander Iannaeus [II 16], succeeded him on the throne in 76 and named her son  Hyrcanus II high priest. She ended the inherited conflict with the  Pharisees and made them participate in the government. Their intent to execute the advisors of Alexander Iannaeus was hindered by the intervention of the Jerusalem aristocracy. She was protected from the expansion plans of  Tigranes I of Armenia through m…

Aretas

(562 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
(epigraphically hritt = Haritat, Greek Ἀρέτας; Arétas, also Ἀρέθας; Aréthas). Name of several rulers of the Arabian  Nabataeans. [German version] [1] I. King of the Nabataeans (1st half 2nd cent. BC) A. I, mentioned in the oldest Nabataean inscription as ‘king of the Nabataeans’ [1. 545 f.], is probably identical to the A., ‘tyrant of the Arabs’, mentioned in 2 Macc 5,8, with whom the deposed Jewish High Priest  Jason vainly sought refuge after his failed attempt on Jerusalem in 168 BC. Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] II. (Herotimos) King of the Nabataeans…

Punic Wars

(2,315 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
Name given to the three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-241, 218-202 and 149-146 BC), which established Rome’s rise as the leading Mediterranean power and were terminated by the destruction of Carthage. [German version] I. The 1st Punic War (264-241) The 1st PW was ignited by a conflict with Messana [1] standing at its centre. After the death of Agathocles, the ruler of Syracuse, [2] in 278 BC, his discharged Oscan mercenaries, the Mamertini (named after the god of war Mars) took over the town, and from there undertook plundering …

Monobazus

(224 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
(Μονόβαζος; Monóbazos). [German version] [1] King of the Parthian vassal state of Adiabene, until ca. 36 AD King of the Parthian vassal state of Adiabene who married his sister Helena with whom he had two sons, Monobazus [2] and Izates [2] (Jos. Ant. Iud. 20,18-27); he reigned until c. AD 36. Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] M. II. King of the Parthian vassal state, since about 59 AD Oldest son of [1] and successor to Izates [2] since about AD 59; like Izates and Helena he had converted to Judaism (Jos. Ant. Iud. 20,75). In AD 64, M. was inv…

Hasmonaeans

(421 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Jewish family of priests from Modeïn, belonging to the Joarib class of priests; the name, which is recorded only in Iosephus and in the Talmud, refers to a not clearly identifiable Ḥašmōn (according to Jos. BI 1,36 father of Mattathias, according to Jos. Ant. Iud. 12,265 his great grandfather). The armed resistance against religious coercion imposed by  Antiochus [6] IV., began with Mattathias in 167 BC. In 165, his son  Iudas Maccabaeus achieved the recapture and reconsecration o…

Drusilla

(95 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Daughter of the Jewish king Agrippa I, born AD 38. As a child she was engaged to Epiphanes, son of king Antiochus IV of Commagene. The marriage did not take place because Epiphanes did not get circumcised as promised. In 53 she married king Azizus of Emesa, who did get circumcised. The Procurator of Judaea  Antonius [II 6] Felix, who was smitten by her beauty, got her to marry him and thus break the law forbidding a Jewess to marry a non-Jew (Jos. ant. Iud. 18,132; 19,354f.; 20,139-143). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)

Iucundus

(145 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] A cavalry commander or bodyguard of Herodes the Gr. According to Jos. BI 1,527, one of the cavalry commanders, according to Jos. Ant. Iud. 16,314, one of the bodyguards, of  Herodes [1] the Great, I. was suspected of conspiring with Herod’s son Alexander against the king, tortured and executed after a forced confession (AD 9). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Roman officer in Caesarea [2] in the 1st cent. AD Officer of the Roman garrison in  Caesarea [2], attempted without success in AD 66 to put an end to the fighting there …

Bar Kochba

(304 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Leader of the great Jewish uprising of 132-135. Documentary evidence exists regarding the name form Simon Bar Kosiba. The name forms Bar Kochba (‘son of the star’) and Bar Koziba (‘son of lies’), known from Christian and rabbinical literature, are tendentious interpretations of the original patronymic. They reflect the Messianic expectations ( Messiah), which are linked with his person and the disappointment about the false Messiah, which followed the failure of the uprising. The …

Hyrcanus

(581 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
Epithet of Jews, after  Hyrcania on the Caspian Sea, introduced by repatriates from the diaspora there. [German version] [1] Around 200 BC Son of the Ptolemaic general tax leaseholder of Coile Syria and Phoenicia, Josephus, from the Jewish magnate family of the Tobiads. After the conquest of Ptolemaic Syria by  Antiochus [5] III in the year 200 BC he retreated to Trans-Jordan, where his grandfather Tobias had founded the family's position of power as commander of the Jewish military settlers. H. presumably kept a pro…

Malichus

(118 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Μάλιχος; Málichos, variant form: Malchus, Μάλχος; Málchos). Confidant and secret rival of Antipater [4], whom he served in 57 BC as a unit commander against the Hasmonaean prince Alexander (Jos. BI 1,162; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,84), and in 43 during the levy of the tribute demanded by C. Cassius [I 10], murderer of Caesar (Jos. BI 1,220; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,273-276). In the same year, he had Antipater poisoned (Jos. BI 1,226; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,281), but fell prey to the vengeance of his victim's son, Herodes [1] the Great (Jos. BI 1,234; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,288-293). Bringmann, Klaus…

Mattathias

(82 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Hebr. mattityah), from Modeïn, a member the Jewish Joarib class of priests, clan father of the Hasmoneans. M. resisted the religious edict of Antiochus [6] IV. Joined by the pious ones (Greek Ἀσιδαῖοι/ Asidaîoi, Hebr. Ḥasīdīm), who had also fled into the Judaean desert, he began a guerilla war against the Jewish loyalists. After his death (167/166 BC) his son Judas [1] Maccabaeus became the leader of the Jewish rebellion (1 Macc 2,1-70). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Schürer, vol. 1.

Malichos

(106 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] (Μάλιχος, Namensvariante: Malchos, Μάλχος). Vertrauter und heimlicher Rivale des Antipatros [4], diente diesem 57 v.Chr. als Truppenführer gegen den hasmonäischen Prinzen Alexandros (Ios. bell. Iud. 1,162; Ios. ant. Iud. 14,84) und 43 bei der Eintreibung der vom Caesarmörder C. Cassius [I 10] geforderten Tribute (Ios. bell. Iud. 1,220; Ios. ant. Iud. 14,273-276). In demselben Jahr ließ er Antipatros vergiften (Ios. bell. Iud. 1,226; Ios. ant. Iud. 14,281) und fiel der Rache des S…

Aretas

(534 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
(inschr. hritt = Haritat, griech. Ἀρέτας, auch Ἀρέθας). Name mehrerer Herrscher der arabischen Nabataioi. [English version] [1] I., König der Nabatäer (1.H. 2. Jh. v. Chr.) A. I., erwähnt in der ältesten nabatäischen Inschr. als ›König der Nabatäer‹ [1. 545 f.], ist wahrscheinlich mit dem im 2 Makk 5,8 erwähnten A., ›Tyrannen der Araber‹, identisch, bei dem der abgesetzte jüd. Hohepriester Iason nach seinem gescheiterten Anschlag auf Jerusalem 168 v. Chr. vergeblich Zuflucht suchte. Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [English version] [2] II. (Herotimos) König der Nabatäer…

Hyrkanos

(519 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
Beiname von Juden, nach Hyrkania am Kaspischen Meer, eingebürgert durch Rückwanderer aus der dortigen Diaspora. [English version] [1] um 200 v. Chr. Sohn des ptolem. Generalsteuerpächters von Koilesyrien und Phoinikien Iosephos aus der jüd. Magnatenfamilie der Tobiaden. Er zog sich nach der Eroberung des ptolem. Syriens durch Antiochos [5] III. im J. 200 v.Chr. in das Transjordanland zurück, wo der Großvater Tobias als Kommandeur jüd. Militärsiedler die Machtstellung der Familie begründet hatte. H. bewahrte vermutlic…

Makedonische Kriege

(1,295 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
Bezeichnung für die drei Kriege zw. Rom und den maked. Königen Philippos V. (215-205 und 200-197 v.Chr.) und Perseus (171-168). [English version] A. Der 1.Makedonische Krieg Der Ursprung des 1. M.K. liegt in konkurrierenden Interessen beider Mächte an der adriatisch-illyrischen Küste. 229/8 führte Rom gegen das illyr. Reich der Königin Teuta zur Unterdrückung der Seeräuberplage (Seeraub) erfolgreich Krieg und begründete freundschaftliche Beziehungen mit Städten, Stämmen und Dynasten dieses Raumes. 219 geriet Rom mit eine…

Mattathias

(77 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] (hebr. mattityah), aus Modeïn, der jüd. Priesterklasse Joarib zugehörig, Stammvater der Hasmonäer. M. leistete dem Religionsedikt Antiochos' [6] IV. Widerstand und eröffnete von der Wüste Juda aus den Partisanenkrieg gegen die jüd. Loyalisten, nachdem sich ihm die ebenfalls in die Wüste geflohenen Frommen (griech. Ἀσιδαῖοι/ Asidaíoi, hebr. Ḥasīdīm) angeschlossen hatten. Nach seinem Tod (167/166 v.Chr.) wurde sein Sohn Judas [1] Makkabaios Führer des jüd. Aufstandes (1 Makk 2,1-70). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Schürer, Bd. 1.

Punische Kriege

(2,082 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
Bezeichnung für die drei Kriege zwischen Rom und Karthago (264-241, 218-202 und 149-146 v. Chr.), die Roms Aufstieg zur mediterranen Weltmacht begründeten und an deren Ende die Zerstörung Karthagos stand. [English version] I. Der 1. Punische Krieg (264-241) Der 1. P. K. entzündete sich an einem Konflikt, in dessen Mittelpunkt Messana [1] stand. Nach dem Tod des Herrschers über Syrakusai, Agathokles [2], im J. 278 v. Chr. hatten sich dessen entlassene oskische Söldner, die sog. Mamertini (Benennung nach dem Kriegsgott Mars), der Stadt bemächtigt u…

Monobazos

(204 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
(Μονόβαζος). [English version] [1] König des parth. Vasallenreiches von Adiabene, bis ca. 36 n.Chr. König des parth. Vasallenreiches von Adiabene, verheiratet mit seiner Schwester Helene, mit der er zwei Söhne, Monobazos [2] und Izates [2], hatte (Ios. ant. Iud. 20,18-27); regierte bis ca. 36 n.Chr. Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [English version] [2] M. II. König des parth. Vasallenreiches von Adiabene, seit ca. 59 n.Chr. Ältester Sohn von [1] und Nachfolger von Izates [2] seit ca. 59 n.Chr., war wie dieser und Helene zum Judentum konvertiert (Ios. ant.…

Iucundus

(125 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] [1] Ein Reiterkommandeur oder Leibwächter Herodes' d. Gr. Nach Ios. bell. Iud. 1,527 einer der Reiterkommandeure, nach Ios. ant. Iud. 16,314 einer der Leibwächter Herodes' [1] d.Gr. I. wurde der Verschwörung mit Herodes' Sohn Alexandros gegen den König verdächtigt, gefoltert und nach einem erpreßten Geständnis hingerichtet (9 n.Chr.). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [English version] [2] Im 1. Jh. n. Chr. röm. Offizier in Caesarea [2] Offizier der röm. Besatzung in Caesarea [2], versuchte 66 n.Chr. dort vergeblich, die Kämpfe zwischen Griec…
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