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ABŪ SAHL ḴOJANDĪ

(140 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
vizier of the Ghaznavids in the 5th/11th century. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 4, pp. 370 ABŪ SAHL ḴOJANDĪ, vizier of the Ghaznavids in the 5th/11th century. He served Sultan Ebrāhīm b. Masʿūd (451-92/1059-99) as that ruler’s second vizier, succeeding Abū Bakr b. Abī Ṣāleḥ, probably in the early part of the reign. All that is known of his background is that he had been secretary in the Ghaznavid dīvāns since the time of Sultan Masʿūd. At some unspecified date he fell from favor and was arrested and blinded at the sultan’s orders. C. Edmund Bosworth Bibliograp…
Date: 2016-07-27

ABU'L-ḤASAN ESFARĀʾĪNĪ

(605 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
first vizier for the Ghaznavid sultan Maḥmūd (r. 388-421/998-1030). A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 3, pp. 303-304 ABU’L- ḤASAN ʿALĪ B. FAŻL B. AḤMAD ESFARĀʾĪNĪ, first vizier for the Ghaznavid sultan Maḥmūd (r. 388-421/998-1030). He began his career as a secretary in Khorasan in the entourage of the ambitious Turkish general of the Samanids, ʿAmīd-al-dawla Fāʾeq Ḵāṣṣa, and was probably a native of the town of Esfarāʾīn in northwest Khorasan. When the bid for control of Khorasan by Fāʾeq and …
Date: 2016-08-01

ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ

(562 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
Ghurid malek and later sultan, reigned in Ḡūr from Fīrūzkūh as the last of his family there before the extinction of the dynasty by the Ḵᵛārazmšāhs, 599-602/1203-96 and 611-12/1214-15. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 7, pp. 777 ʿALĀʾ-AL- DĪN (or ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN) ʿALĪ B. ŠOJĀʿ-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ, Ghurid malek and later sultan, reigned in Ḡūr from Fīrūzkūh as the last of his family there before the extinction of the dynasty by the Ḵᵛārazmšāhs, 599-602/1203-96 and 611-12/1214-15. As Malek Żīāʾ-al-dīn, and also bearing the titl…
Date: 2016-09-19

ʿALĪ B. MAʾMŪN

(225 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
ABU’L-ḤASAN, second Ḵᵛārazmšāh of the short-lived Maʾmunid dynasty in Ḵᵛārazm (r. 997-ca. 1008-09). A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 8, pp. 852 ʿALĪ B. MAʾMŪN, ABU’L-ḤASAN, second Ḵᵛārazmšāh of the short-lived Maʾmunid dynasty in Ḵᵛārazm (reigned 387-ca. 399/997-ca. 1008-9). He was married to Maḥmūd of Ḡazna’s sister Kah-Kālǰī (ʿOtbī, al-Taʾrīḵ al-Yamīnī, with commentary of Shaikh Manīnī, Cairo, 1286/1869, II, p. 151), and the latter was, after his death, taken over by his brother and successor Abu’l-ʿAbbās Maʾmūn in…
Date: 2017-10-04

ABU'L-FATḤ YŪSOF

(173 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
Ghaznavid vizier of the early 6th/12th century. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 3, pp. 287 ABU’L- FATḤ YŪSOF B. YAʿQŪB, ŠAMS-AL-WOZARĀʾ QOṬB-AL-DĪN NEẒĀM-AL-MOLK, Ghaznavid vizier of the early 6th/12th century. The dates of his birth and death are unknown; the biographical works on viziers by Nāṣer-al-dīn Kermānī, Sayf-al-dīn Fażlī, and others stop short at the viziers of the later Ghaznavids. It is possible that he was a brother of the Abu’l-ʿAlāʾ b. Yaʿqūb Nākūk (q.v.) who had serve…
Date: 2016-08-01

JEBĀL

(862 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
in Arabic, the plural of jabal “mountain,” a geographical term used in early Islamic times for the western part of Persia, roughly corresponding to ancient Media (Ar. māh). A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 6, pp. 617-618 JEBĀL, in Arabic, the plural of jabal “mountain,” a geographical term used in early Islamic times for the western part of Persia, roughly corresponding to ancient Media (Ar. māh, see below). It received its name from its mountain and upland plateau topography, embracing as it did the central part of the Zāgros mount…
Date: 2012-04-13

ARSANJĀN

(234 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
a small town in Fārs on the northeastern fringes of the Zagros mountain massif. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 5, pp. 546-547 ARSANJĀN, a small town in Fārs on the northeastern fringes of the Zagros mountain massif. It is situated 30 miles to the east of Persepolis and 55 miles northeast of Shiraz; to its southeast lies Lake Nīrīz. There do not seem to be any mentions of Arsanǰān in the older classical Arabic and Persian geographers, although Ḥamdallāh Mostawfī mentions villages in the r…
Date: 2013-02-15

INDIA

(79,491 words)

Author(s): C. J. Brunner | Pierfrancesco Callieri | C. Edmund Bosworth | Richard M. Eaton | Mansour Bonakdarian | Et al.
This series of entries covers Indian history and its relations with Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 6-87 INDIA: relations with Iran. INDIA i. Introduction By the close of the second millennium B.C.E. the speakers of related but already well-differentiated and internally diversified language groups, proto-Iranian and proto-Indo-Aryan (along with proto-Nuristani), were settling in the new homelands of Iran and India where their historical future lay. Existing cultural, as well as …
Date: 2012-03-27

ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA MOḤAMMAD

(1,072 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
(d. 433/1041), Daylamī military leader and founder of the shortlived but significant Kakuyid dynasty. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 7, pp. 773-774 ʿALĀʾ-AL- DAWLA ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD B. ROSTAM DOŠMANZĪĀR B. MARZOBĀN (d. 433/1041), Daylamī military leader and founder of the shortlived but significant Kakuyid dynasty, which existed independently in Jebāl and then survived subsequently, under Saljuq aegis, in Abarqūh and Yazd. The sources frequently accord him the name of Ebn Kākūya or Pesar-e …
Date: 2016-09-14

ʿĀREŻ

(1,636 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
the official in medieval eastern Islamic states who had charge of the administrative side of the military forces, being especially concerned with payment, recruitment, training, and inspection. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 4, pp. 393-394 ʿĀREŻ (Arabic ʿĀriḍ, from the verb ʿ araḍa, also iʿtaraḍa, istaʿraḍa, “to lay open to view,” i.e., for inspection), the official in medieval eastern Islamic states who had charge of the administrative side of the military forces, being especially concerned with payment, recr…
Date: 2013-03-05

ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

(376 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
governor of Ḡazna in eastern Afghanistan on behalf of the Samanids (352/963-355/966). A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 3, pp. 272-273 ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM B. ALPTIGIN (named in some sources, e.g., Ebn Bābā, as Esḥāq b. Alptigin), governor of Ḡazna in eastern Afghanistan on behalf of the Samanids, Šaʿbān, 352 to Ḏu’l-qaʿda, 355/September, 963 to November, 966. Abū Esḥāq Ebrāhīm’s father Alptigin had been commander-in-chief of the Samanid army in Bokhara; compelled in 350/961 to withdraw from th…
Date: 2016-07-25

ARDAKĀN-E FĀRS

(412 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
a small upland town of the ostān of Fārs. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 4, pp. 370 ARDAKĀN-E FĀRS, a small upland town of the ostān of Fārs (hence to be distinguished from the Ardakān-e Yazd), lying in 30° 16’ north latitude and 51° 59’ east longitude and situated at an altitude of 7,257 ft/2,212 m. It is thus within the southern Zagros region, one of high valleys and steep mountain ranges, connected now by a road to the provincial capital Shiraz, 60 miles/96 km to the southeast. To the no…
Date: 2013-03-05

ABHARĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN

(173 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
vizier of the last two Great Saljuq sultans in western Persia. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 2, pp. 217 ABHARĪ, ḴᵛĀJA KAMĀL-AL -DĪN ABŪ ʿAmr, vizier of the last two Great Saljuq sultans in western Persia, Arslan b. Ṭoḡ rı l II (556-71/1161-76) and his son Ṭoḡrıl III (579-90/1176-94). After a secretarial career, he first became minister to Arslan. When Ṭoḡrıl III became restive under the tutelage of the Eldiguzid atabegs of Azerbaijan and endeavored to escape from them, he ended up by bei…
Date: 2014-01-25

JALĀL-AL-DIN ḴᵛĀRAZMŠĀH(I) MENGÜBIRNI

(1,118 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
the last Ḵᵛārazmšāh of the line of Anuštigin Ḡarčaʾi, reigned in 1220-31 as the eldest son and successor of ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 4, pp. 404-405 JALĀL-AL-DIN ḴᵛĀRAZMŠĀH (I) MENGÜBIRNI, the last Ḵᵛārazmšāh of the line of Anuštigin Ḡarčaʾi, reigned in 1220-31 as the eldest son and successor of ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad. His Turkish personal name remains enigmatic, as no more satisfactory interpretation of the Arabic consonant ductus MNKBRNY has been seriously suggested than mengü birti (‘the Heavens [i.e., God] gav…
Date: 2013-07-10

ÏNĀNČ ḴĀTUN

(722 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
wife of the Atābeg Jahān-Pahlavān Moḥammad (r. 1175-86), the Eldigüzid (or Ildegizid) ruler in Arrān, most of Azerbaijan, and then Jebāl. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 3 ÏNĀNČ ḴĀTUN (Inānj Ḵātun), wife of the Atābeg Noṣrat-al-Din Jahān-Pahlavān Moḥammad b. Šams-al-Din Eldigüz (r. 571-82/1175-86), the Eldigüzid or Ildegizid ruler in Arrān, most of Azerbaijan, and then Jebāl. She was the daughter of the powerful Turkish governor of Ray, nominally for the later Saljuqs, Ḥosām-al-Din Ïnānč…
Date: 2012-03-27

ABŪ MANṢŪR FARĀMARZ

(931 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
eldest son of the Kakuyid amir of Jebāl, ʿAlāʾ-al-dawla Moḥammad b. Došmanzīār. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 3, pp. 335-336 ABŪ MANṢŪR FARĀMARZ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN ŠAMS-AL-MOLK, eldest son of the Kakuyid amir of Jebāl, ʿAlāʾ-al-dawla Moḥammad b. Došmanzīār. He reigned in Isfahan, 433-43/1041-51, and died at some unknown date after 455/1063. He may thus be considered as the second independent ruler of the Kakuyid dynasty, whose original fortunes had been made as commanders under the Buyids and…
Date: 2016-07-26

ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA ʿALĪ

(612 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
(511-34/1117-40), ruler of the Espahbadīya line of the local dynasty of the Bavandids in the Caspian region of Māzandarān. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 7, pp. 772 ʿALĀʾ-AL- DAWLA ʿALĪ B. ḤOSĀM-AL-DAWLA ŠAHRĪĀR B. QĀREN (511-34/1117-40), ruler of the Espahbadīya line of the local dynasty of the Bavandids (see Āl-e Bāvand) in the Caspian region of Māzandarān. Under his rule, the dynasty achieved an importance transcending the local Caspian scene, for at various times the weakness of the Great Sa…
Date: 2016-09-19

ABU'L-ʿALĀʾ ʿAṬĀʾ

(326 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
secretary and poet of the Ghaznavid period, d. 491/1098. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 3, pp. 252 ABU’L- ʿALĀʾ ʿAṬĀʾ, called NĀKŪK, secretary and poet of the Ghaznavid period, d. 491/1098. Little is known of his life, but ʿAwfī, in a biographical notice in his Lobāb al-albāb, gives him the title of ʿamīd and kāteb. It seems that he filled high office under the Ghaznavid sultan Ebrāhīm b. Masʿūd (450-92/1059-99). It is probable that he had some connection with the chief secretary, Abū Sahl Zūzanī (a contemporary of the …
Date: 2016-07-28

ANŪŠTIGIN ḠARČAʾĪ

(496 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
Turkish slave commander of the Saljuqs; in the late 11th century, he bore the traditional title of Ḵᵛārazmšāh. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 2, pp. 140 ANŪŠTIGIN ḠARČAʾĪ, Turkish slave commander of the Saljuqs; in the late 5th/11th century, under Sultans Malekšāh and Berkyaruq (Barkīāroq), he bore the traditional title of Ḵᵛārazmšāh. Ḵᵛārazm had passed into Saljuq hands with the flight of the son of the Oḡuz Yabḡū Šāh Malek of Jand in 433/1042 and had subsequently become an important base fo…
Date: 2013-02-13

ABŪ AḤMAD B. ABĪ BAKR KĀTEB

(337 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
poet and official of the Samanids, fl. first half of the 4th/10th century. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 3, pp. 251 ABŪ AḤMAD B. ABĪ BAKR B. ḤĀMED AL- KĀTEB, poet and official of the Samanids, fl. first half of the 4th/10th century; his exact dates are unknown. His father, Abū Bakr, had been secretary to Amir Esmāʿīl b. Aḥmad (279-95/892-907) and vizier to Aḥmad Esmāʿīl (295-301/907-14) before the vizierate of Abū ʿAbdallāh Jayhānī. Abū Aḥmad thought that the family traditions of official servi…
Date: 2016-07-22
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