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HELMAND RIVER

(5,821 words)

Author(s): M. Jamil Hanifi | EIr | Gherardo Gnoli | C. Edmund Bosworth | Arash Khazeni
the border river of Afghanistan and Persia. It originates in the mountains in the Hazārajāt (q.v) and flows into the Sistān in southeastern Persia and finally drains into the Hāmun Lake. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 2, pp. 170-176 HELMAND RIVER (Av. Haētumant; modern usage, Hirmand, Halmand), the border river of Afghanistan and Persia. It originates in the mountains in the Hazārajāt (q.v) and flows into the Sistān in southeastern Persia and finally drains into the Hāmun Lake (q.v.). i. Geography. ii. In Zoroastrian tradition. iii. In the medieval …
Date: 2014-05-26

GANJA

(1,612 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
(Ar. Janza), the Islamic name of a town in the early medieval Islamic province of Arrān (the classical Caucasian Albania, Armenian Alvankʿ). A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 3, pp. 282-283 GANJA (Ar. Janza), the Islamic name of a town in the early medieval Islamic province of Arrān (the classical Caucasian Albania, Armenian Alvankʿ; see ARRĀN). In imperial Russian times, the town was called Elisavetpol after 1813; in Soviet times, when it came within the Azerbaijan SSR, it was first called Gandzha …
Date: 2013-06-01

LE STRANGE, GUY

(2,356 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
(1854-1933), scholar in Persian, Arabic, and Spanish, specially notable for his work in the field of the historical geography of the pre-modern Middle Eastern and Eastern Islamic lands and his editing of Persian geographical texts. Le Strange’s chef d’ɶuvre is, however, undoubtedly The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate(1905). LE STRANGE, GUY (b. Hunstanton, Norfolk, 24 July 1854; d. Cambridge, 24 December 1933), scholar in Persian, Arabic, and Spanish, specially notable for his work in the field of the historical geography of the pre-modern Middle Eastern and Eastern Islamic lands and his editing of Persian geographical texts. Born into an old landed gentry family of north Norfolk, he was educated at Clifton College and the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, but did not study at a university, although his scholarly work and his reputation eventually secured for him, in 1913, an honorary M.A. from Cambridge University. Coming from an affluen…
Date: 2014-07-01

HĀRUN AL-RAŠID

(2,520 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
(d. 809), HĀRUN B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿABD-ALLĀH, the fifth caliph of the ʿAbbasid dynasty (r. 786-809), the third son of the caliph al-Mahdi. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 1, pp. 17-20 HĀRUN AL-RAŠID, HĀRUN B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿABD-ALLĀH (d. Ṭus, 3 Jomādā II 193/24 March 809), the fifth caliph of the ʿAbbasid dynasty (r. 170-93/786-809), the third son of the caliph al-Mahdi and second son borne him by the slave concubine Ḵayzorān. He was born in Ray, either on 26 Ḏu’l-ḥejja 145/17 March 763 or 1 Moḥarram 149/16 February 766. Since he is also said to have been 21 or 22 years old at his accession (Ṭabari, III, p. 599), the later date seems more likely.…
Date: 2017-02-23

ḤIRA

(1,289 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
city on the desert fringes of southwestern Mesopotamia; known in pre-Islamic times as the capital of the Lakhmid Arab dynasty, clients of the Sasanians, it survived as an urban settlement into the early centuries of the Islamic period. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 3, pp. 322-323 ḤIRA, a city on the desert fringes of southwestern Mesopotamia; known in pre-Islamic times as the capi…
Date: 2013-06-08

ʿABBASID CALIPHATE

(5,514 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
the third dynasty of caliphs who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs in Damascus. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 1, pp. 89-95 ʿABBASID CALIPHATE in Iran. The aim of the present article is not to give a chronological history of Persia under ʿAbbasid rule but to examine some of the main trends affecting the political, religious, and cultural development of Persia during the period when ʿAbbasid rule was effective there—essentially from the middle of the 2nd/8th century to the opening decades of the 4th/10th century.…
Date: 2017-05-03

LANBASAR

(736 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
an important fortress of the Nezāri Ismaʿilis in the mountainous district of Rudbār, within the region of medieval Islamic Daylam in northwestern Iran. LANBASAR (the form in Rašid-al-Din and Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi; popular pronunciation, and the form used by Jovayni, Lam(m)asar), an important fortress of the Nezāri Ismaʿilis in the valley of the Šāhrud river, a tributary of the Safidrud, in th…
Date: 2014-12-15

ḠARČESTĀN

(300 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
name of a region in early Islamic times, situated to the north of the upper Harīrūd and the Paropamisus range and on the head waters of the Moṟḡāb. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 3, pp. 292 ḠARČESTĀN, name of a region in early Islamic times, situated to the north of the upper Harīrūd and the Paropamisus range and on the head waters of the Moṟḡāb. To its west w…
Date: 2014-10-22

HAZĀRASPIDS

(346 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs, and which flourished in the later Saljuq, Il-khanid, Mozaffarid, and Timurid periods. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 1, pp. 93 HAZĀRASPIDS, a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs, and which flourished in the later Saljuq, Ilkhanid, Mozaffar…
Date: 2013-06-07

ʿĀBEDĪ

(136 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
a landowner ( dehqān) of Transoxania (12th century). A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 2, pp. 210 ʿĀBEDĪ, ABU’L-RAJĀʾ AḤMAD B. ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD, a landowner ( dehqān) of Transoxania. At Samarqand in 504/1110-11 (during the reign of the Qarakhanid Arslān Khan Moḥammad b. Solaymān, son-in-law of the Saljuq Sultan Sanǰar), he related to Neẓāmī ʿArūżī how the poet Rūdakī had been rewarded by the Samanid Naṣr b. Aḥmad (250-79/864-92) for a poem praising the amir and Bokhar…
Date: 2016-07-22

ḴĀTUN

(426 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
a title of high-born women in the pre-modern Turkish and Persian worlds. A version of this article is available in print Volume XVI, Fascicle 2, pp. 129-130 ḴĀTUN, a title of high-born women in the pre-modern Turkish and Persian worlds. Although the title is first attested in Orkhon Turkish, where qatun/ ḵatun in the Kül-tegin and Bilge-qaghan inscriptions denotes “wife of the khan or ruler, queen” (Tekin, pp. 342-43; Kāšḡari, tr. Atalay I, p. 410; tr. Dankoff and Kelly I, p. 311), the word is almost certainly of Sogdian origin ( xwtʾy “lord, ruler,” xwt’yn “lord’s wife”; Clauson, p. 602). In the border land between the districts of Šāš and Ilāq on the middle Syr Darya lay a town Ḵātunkat “Lady’s Town” (Barthold,
Date: 2013-04-24

ʿABD-AL-MALEK B. NŪḤ

(438 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
the penultimate ruler of the Samanid dynasty in Khorasan and Transoxania, r. 389/999. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 2, pp. 127-128 ʿABD-AL -MALEK B. NŪḤ B. MANṢŪR, ABU’L-FAVĀRES, the penultimate ruler of the Samanid dynasty in Khorasan and Transoxania, r. 389/999. In the decade of the 380s/990s, the Samanid amirate was being subverted internally by the rivalries of ambitious Turkish military commanders and was attacked externally after 382/992 by the Qarakhanid Turkish ruler from beyond th…
Date: 2015-08-07

HENDUŠĀH B. SANJAR

(542 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
B. ʿABD-ALLAH SAḤEBI KIRANI, author of a Persian history Tajāreb al-salaf (fl. first half of the 8th/14th century). A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 2, pp. 181-182 HENDUŠĀH B. SANJAR B. ʿABD-ALLAH SAḤEBI KIRANI, the little-known author of a Persian history called the Tajāreb al-salaf (fl. first half of the 8th/14th century). Virtually nothing is known of his life or when he was born and died. Browne (1924, p. 246 n. 1) thought that the nesba
Date: 2013-06-07

KĀKUYIDS

(2,964 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
[KAKWAYHIDS], a dynasty of Deylamite origin that ruled in western Persia, Jebāl, and Kurdistan about 1008-51 as independent princes. A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 4, pp. 359-362 KĀKUYIDS (KAKWAYHIDS), a dynasty of Deylamite origin that ruled in western Persia, in Jebāl and Kurdistan about 1008-51 as independent princes, and thereafter locally as feudatories of the Great Saljuqs until the mid-12th century. They represent one of the hitherto submerged local powers of this region, Deylamite and…
Date: 2012-10-16

GHURIDS

(3,480 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
There were at least three raids by the early Ghaznavids into Ḡūr, led by Sultan Maḥmūd and his son Masʿūd, in the first deca…
Date: 2013-11-25

ḤAMZA B. ĀḎARAK

(432 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
or Atrak or ʿAbd-Allāh Abu Ḵozayma (d. 828), Kharijite rebel in Sistān and Khorasan during early ʿAbbasid times. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 6, pp. 648 ḤAMZA B. ĀḎARAK or Atrak or ʿAbd-Allāh Abu Ḵozayma, Kharijite rebel in Sistān and Khorasan during early ʿAbbasid times. He was of dehqān (q.v.) stock from southern Afghanistan, to the east of Bost, where there was a long tradition of Kharijite, anti-government activity. His rebellion began in the countryside of Sistān in 179/795-96 or possibly in the following two years, and was directed not only against the official representatives of the ʿAbbasids but also against rival Kharijite sects. He assumed the title of “Commander of the Faithful,” and in 182/798 defeated caliphal forces under the governor of Khorasan, ʿAli b. ʿIsā b. Māhān (q.v.). Although unable to capture such bastions of Sunni orthodoxy and caliphal power as the cities of Zarang, Herat and Nishapur, Ḥamza’s partisans sacked the town of Bayhaq and terrorized the countryside, deliberately killing tax collectors, thus impeding the flow of revenue from the east to Baghdad. Ḥamza’s movement thus had clear social as well as religious dimensions and gave vent to the resentment felt against exploitation by the ʿAbbasid governors. It was Kharijite depredations which made Hārun-al-Rašid resolve to march against Ḥamza in 193/808, and we possess the texts of an exchange of letters, the caliph’s ultimatum …
Date: 2013-06-05

JABḠUYA

(2,606 words)

Author(s): NICHOLAS SIMS-WILLIAMS | ÉTIENNE DE LA VAISSIERE | C. Edmund Bosworth
Arabo-Persian form of the Central Asian title yabḡu. Although it is best known as a Turkish title of nobility, it was in use many centuries before the Turks appear in the historical record. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIV, Fascicle 3, pp. 314-317 JABḠUYA, Arabo-Persian form of the Central Asian title yabḡu. i. ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY Although yabḡu is best known as a Turkish title of nobility, it was in use many centuries before the Turks appear in the historical record. The earliest form of the word attested is the Chinese xihou (ancient i̯əp-g’u; Karlgren, pp. 67…
Date: 2012-04-05

ABASKŪN

(496 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
(ĀBASKŪN), a port of the medieval period on the southwest shore of the Caspian Sea in Gorgān province. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 1, pp. 69-70 ABASKŪN (ĀBASKŪN), a port of the medieval period on the southwest shore of the Caspian Sea in Gorgān province. Perhaps it should be connected with the Sōkanda river in ancient Hyrcania mentioned by Ptolemy ( Geographia 6.9.2.). It seems to have been at or near the mouth of the Gorgān river (the Herand river in Ḥodūd al-ʿālam). According to Swedish archeologists “Abaskun should be iden…
Date: 2016-06-22

ḴĀNOM

(247 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
Date: 2012-10-29

GIBB MEMORIAL SERIES

(1,302 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth
or GMS; a series of publications, which has continued for almost a century, mainly, but not exclusively, dedicated to editions and translations of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish texts. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 6, pp. 601-602 GIBB MEMORIAL SERIES (GMS), a series of publications, which has continued for almost a century, mainly, but not exclusively, dedicated to editions and translations of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish texts. The Series is financed by the Gibb Memorial Trust, which was originally set up…
Date: 2013-06-02
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