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HELMAND RIVER

(5,821 words)

Author(s): M. Jamil Hanifi | EIr | Gherardo Gnoli | C. Edmund Bosworth | Arash Khazeni
the border river of Afghanistan and Persia. It originates in the mountains in the Hazārajāt (q.v) and flows into the Sistān in southeastern Persia and finally drains into the Hāmun Lake. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 2, pp. 170-176 HELMAND RIVER (Av. Haētumant; modern usage, Hirmand, Halmand), the border river of Afghanistan and Persia. It originates in the mountains in the Hazārajāt (q.v) and flows into the Sistān in southeastern Persia and finally drains into the Hāmun Lake (q.v.). i. Geography. ii. In Zoroastrian tradition. iii. In the medieval …
Date: 2014-05-26

EUNUCHS

(4,469 words)

Author(s): Muhammad Dandamayev | A. Kolesnikov | C. Edmund Bosworth | Kathryn Babayan | Anna Vanzan
castrated males who were in charge of the concubines of royal harems, served in the daily life of…
Date: 2014-11-24

ʿARAB

(23,005 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth | M. Morony | Elton L. Daniel | Pierre Oberling | Bernard Hourcade | Et al.
As two of the most prominent ethnic elements in the Middle East, Arabs and Iranians have been in contact with each other, and at times have had their fortunes intertwined, for some three millennia. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 2, pp. 201-224 See also ARABIC. ʿARAB i. Arabs and Iran in the pre-Islamic period As two of the most prominent ethnic elements in the Middle East, Arabs and Iranians have been in contact with each other, and at times have had their fortunes intertwined, for some three millennia. Herodotus (3.5) relates how in the 6th century B.C. the Achaemenid Cambyses marched against Egypt through northern Arabia after making a transit agreement with the local Arab ruler, probably one of the kings of Leḥīān in the northern Ḥeǰāz and how in the following century Xerxes employed camel-mounted…
Date: 2013-09-13

BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI

(17,693 words)

Author(s): Muhammad A. Dandamayev | Maria Macuch | C. Edmund Bosworth | Willem Floor | Hamid Algar
Slaves and slavery. i. In the Achaemenid period. ii. In the Sasanian period. iii. In the Islamic period up to the Mongol invasion. iv. From the Mongols to the abolition of slavery. v. Military slavery in Islamic Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 7, pp. 762 BARDA and BARDADĀRĪ, "slaves and slavery." BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI i. Achaemenid Period At the beginning of the Achaemenid period, the institution of slavery was still poorly developed in Iran. In Media a custom existed whereby a poor man could place himself at the disposal of a rich person if the latter agreed to feed him. The position of such a man was similar to that of a slave. However, he could at any time leave his master if he was poorly fed (see I. M. D’yakonov [Diakonoff],
Date: 2016-10-31

ARDABĪL

(8,706 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth | Xavier de Planhol | M. E. Weaver | M. Medley | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
town and district in northeastern Azerbaijan. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 4, pp. 357-365 i. History of Ardabīl Ardabīl (spelled Ardavīl in the Ḥodūd al-ʿālam, and vocalized Ardobīl by Samʿānī), the name of a town and a district in northeastern Azerbaijan. It is situated at 48° 17’ east longitude and 38° 15’ north latitude, about 25 miles from the present Soviet frontier and 40 miles from the Caspian Sea across the mountains and then the lowlands of Ṭāleš. The town of Ardabīl lies on a p…
Date: 2015-11-11

ASB

(13,207 words)

Author(s): Shahbazi, A. Shapur | Thordarson, Fridrik | Gerdfarāmarzi, ʿA. Solṭāni | Bosworth, C. Edmund
ASB, “horse” ( equus cabullus, Av. aspa-, Old PerS. asa- and aspa-, Mid. and NPers. asp/b); uses and significance of horses in the Iranian world. A version of this article is available in printVolume II, Fascicle 7, pp. 724-737 ASB, “horse” ( equus cabullus, Av. aspa-, Old PerS. asa- and aspa-, Mid. and NPers. asp/b).…
Date: 2021-12-16

KERMAN

(59,279 words)

Author(s): Borjian, Habib | Planhol, Xavier de | Zanjani, Habibollah | Bosworth, C. Edmund | Matthee, Rudi | Et al.
province of Iran located between Fars and Sistan va Balučestān; also the name of its principal city and capital.A version of this article is available in printVolume XVI, Fascicle 3, pp. 246-315 KERMAN (Kermān), a province in southeastern Iran; also the name of one of its sub-provinces as well as that of its principal city and capital.KERMAN i. Geography Physical geography. Kerman province is situated in southeast Iran, to the southwest of the Kavir-e Lut (see DESERT). Covering an area of 182,000 km2 (70,000 square miles), Kerman is the largest province in Persia, constitutin…
Date: 2022-09-15

GORGĀN

(19,573 words)

Author(s): Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni | Eckart Ehlers | Muhammad Yusof Kiani | A. D. H. Bivar | C. Edmund Bosworth | Et al.
OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Geography, ii. Dašt-e Gorgān, iii. Population, iv. Archeology, v. Pre-Islamic history, vi. History from the rise of Islam to the beginning of the Safavid Period, vii. To the end of the Pahlavi era. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 2, pp. 139-154 GORGĀN i. Geography GORGĀN, the ancient Hyrcania, an important Persian province at the southeast corner of the Caspian sea. In June 1997, the eastern part of the Māzandarān Province, consisting of the two sub-provinces of Gorgān and Gonbad-e Kāvus/Qābus (formerly c…
Date: 2017-04-10

ARMY

(35,127 words)

Author(s): A. Shapur Shahbazi | C. Edmund Bosworth | M. Haneda | John R. Perry | Stephanie Cronin | Et al.
a survey from early pre-Islamic times to the mid-20th century. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 5, pp. 489-517 ARMY i. Pre-Islamic Iran Introduction
Date: 2013-03-06

COURTS AND COURTIERS

(30,765 words)

Author(s): Dandamayev, Muhammad A. | Gignoux, Philippe | Bosworth, C. Edmund | Jackson, Peter | Gronke, Monika | Et al.
A version of this article is available in printVolume VI, Fascicle 4, pp. 356-388COURTS AND COURTIERS i. In the Median and Achaemenid periodsAvailable information on the Median and Achaemenid imperial courts is very limited and not entirely reliable. From Herodotus’ report (1.114) of the child Cyrus’ playing at being king it seems that the Median court included bodyguards, messengers, the “king’s eye” (a kind of secret agent; see below), and builders, for it is likely that the game was modeled on the existing court (Hirsch, p. 105). When the boy became Cyrus the Great (559-30 b.c.e.) he probably continued Median courtly organization …
Date: 2022-01-20

BUKHARA

(35,331 words)

Author(s): Richard N. Frye | C. Edmund Bosworth | Yuri Bregel | G. A. Pugachenkova | E. V. Rtveladze | Et al.
i. In pre-Islamic times. ii. From the Arab invasions to the Mongols. iii. After the Mongol invasion. iv. The khanate of Bukhara and Khorasan. v. Archeology and monuments. vi. The Bukharan school of miniature painting. vii. Bukharan Jews. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 5, pp. 511 BUKHARA i. In Pre-Islamic Times The site or town of Bukhara was one of many settlements in the large oasis formed by the mouths of the Zarafshan (Zarafšān) river in ancient Sogdiana. Since there is no evidence that the river reached the Oxus in historic times, it is a reasonable assumption that in the first millennium B.C. irrigation, using the water of the river, enabled an ever-growing population to expand the arable land of the oasis. At the time of Alexander the Great no city is reported to have existed in this area, and t…
Date: 2016-12-09

AZERBAIJAN

(53,427 words)

Author(s): Planhol, Xavier de | Kleiss, Wolfram | Schippmann, Klaus | Bosworth, C. Edmund | Kuniholm, Bruce R. | Et al.
(Āḏarbāy[e]jān), historical region of northwestern Iran, east of Lake Urmia, since the Achaemenid era.A version of this article is available in printVolume III, Fascicle 2-3, pp. 205-257 AZERBAIJAN (Āḏarbāy[e]jān), historical region of northwestern Iran, east of Lake Urmia, …
Date: 2022-02-17

INDIA

(79,491 words)

Author(s): C. J. Brunner | Pierfrancesco Callieri | C. Edmund Bosworth | Richard M. Eaton | Mansour Bonakdarian | Et al.
This series of entries covers Indian history and its relations with Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume XIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 6-87 INDIA: relations with Iran. INDIA i. Introduction By the close of the second millennium B.C.E. the speakers of related but already well-differentiated and internally diversified language groups, proto-Iranian and proto-Indo-Aryan (along with proto-Nuristani), were settling in the new homelands o…
Date: 2012-03-27

CENTRAL ASIA

(75,713 words)

Date: 2017-11-08
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