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Biriciana

(78 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Raeti, Raetia Modern Weißenburg in Bavaria. Large fort (5.1 ha.) of the ala I Hispanorum Auriana; nearby the fort ‘Breitung’ (3.5 ha.), possibly of the cohors IX Batavorum. Civilian settlement of more than 30 ha. in size, with restored thermae; magnificent treasure trove of the 3rd cent. AD. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography H.-J. Kellner, in: W. Czsyz, K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, Id. (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 534-536.

Licca

(27 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Λικίας; Likías). Righthand tributary of the Danube (Ptol. 2,12,1; 4; Venantius Fortunatus Carm. praef. 4, Vita Martini 4,642), modern Lech. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Bürgle

(75 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Late Roman fortification (0,16 ha.) on a hill crest at the foot of the steep terrace at Gundremmingen, possibly Pinianis, a fort of the cohors V Valeria Frygum (Not. Dign. Occ. 35,29), or -- assuming a shift in name to Febian(i)s -- that of a part of the equites stablesiani iuniores (ibid. 35,15). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography W. Czysz, B., in: Id., K. Dietz, Th. Fischer, H.-J. Kellner (ed.), Die Römer in Bayern, 1995, 430f.

Aduatuci

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Descending from the  Cimbri and  Teutoni (Caes. B Gall. 2,29,4 f.), the A. lived among the Germani Cisrhenani, without being part of them, between the Nervii and the Eburones in Gallia Belgica on both banks of the Maas river between Liège/Namur and Limbourg. The main town was Aduatuca (Tungrorum), modern Tongeren, with an early Roman garrison [1]. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Vanderhoeven (et al.), Tongern, Tongres, Tongeren, in: Spurensicherung, 1992, 387-402, 579. J. R. Marichal, Les frontières des Aduatiques et des Germains cisrhé…

Breuni

(120 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (Breones). Tribe living in the inner Alps in  Raetia, subjugated by Drusus in 15 BC; often mentioned in connection with the Genauni (e.g. Hor. Carm. 4,14,11: veloces; Plin. HN 3,137), they were wrongly associated with the Brenner Pass. Under the name of Breones, they were still active as a group in late antiquity (Cassiod. Var. 1,11,2; Venetius Fortunatus, Vita Martini 4,645; Carm. praef. 4), and gave their name to a diocese (Acta Conc. Oec. IV 2,135 § 18 v. 591). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR L 32,39 H. Wolfram, Tiroler Randgruppen, in: FS A. Betz, …

Chauci

(170 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Warlike Germanic seafaring tribe (etymologically related to the Gothic háuhs, Old High German hôh- ‘high’; Str. 7,1,3; idealized in Tac. Germ. 35). The C. lived north of the Angrivarii on the North Sea coast, on both banks of the lower Weser, and were divided into the ‘lesser’ and the ‘greater’ C. (Tac. Ann. 11,19,2; Ptol. 2,11,7; 9; Plin. HN 16,2-5). They were fought by Drusus and subjected to Roman rule in AD 5; despite a Roman occupational force and the fact that they had to supply auxiliar…

Aguntum

(311 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia The modern Dölsach and Nußdorf-Debant on the road through the Drau valley (unknown etymology); when the Celtic Laianci came into contact with the Romans at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC, the municipium Claudium A. (Plin. HN 3,146) with   forum ,   capitolium ,   basilica and  thermae [1] developed about 2 km east of the original town. Mining and processing of metal ensured the economic prosperity of A. and its territory -- from the Felber Tauern to the Kärntner Tor, from the Lie…

Alta Ripa

(100 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Today Altrip near Speyer. ‘Bell-shaped’, fort with its long side facing the Rhine from the Valentinian period (Cod. Theod. 11,31,4, AD 369) part of the fortress system of the Neckar confluence (Not. Dign. occ. 39; cf. the fortifications providing safe shipping, Symm. Or. 2,20 [1]). Destroyed in the New Year's night of AD 406/7 by  Alani,  Suebi and  Vands.  Castellum Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 A. Pabst, 1989, 147 f., 332 ff. S. V. Schnurbein, H.-J. Köhler, Der neue Plan des valentinianischen Kastells A. (Altrip), in: BRGK 70, 1989, 507-526 S. von…

Langobardi

(572 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] (etym. Lang(a/o)-bardoz, ‘the long beards’ [9]). Germanic tribe which Tacitus (Germ. 40,1) and Ptolemy (2,11,9) count among the Suebi; according to tribal mythology [1], they wandered out of southern Sweden as the Winniler into territories south of the Baltic Sea around 100 BC and fused with other peoples. The L. are archaeologically confirmed on the lower course of the Elbe (in the Bardengau) from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Briefly driven back to the east bank by Tiberius in AD 5 (…

Dieburg

(45 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Roman civilian settlement, main settlement of the civitas Auderiensium with good infrastructure (archaeological finds: e.g., a Mithraeum). Heyday about AD 300, but victim of Alamannic raids. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography E. Schallmayer, D., in: D. Baatz, F.-R. Herrmann (ed.), Die Römer in Hessen, 21989, 250-255.

Aviones

(46 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] A Germanic people who according to Tac. Germ. 40,2 worshipped  Nerthus with the Reudigni, Angli, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and Nuithones; it is not possible to work out their exact location in spite of the etymology ‘water dwellers, island inhabitants’ Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Cannenefates

(101 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe, also known as Can(n)anefates, in their ‘extraction, dialect and bravery equal to the Batavi’ (Tac. Hist. 4,15,1; cf. Plin. HN 4,101), in the western part of the insula Batavorum, between Oude Rijn and Mosa (Helinium); cf. ‘Kennemerland’. Possibly subjugated by Tiberius (Vell. Pat. 2,105,1), they provided at the least one ala and one cohors (Tac. Ann. 4,73,2; Hist. 4,19,1). Their capital of Voorburg-Arentsburg became Forum Hadriani and municipium. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 31, 59 B. H. Stolte, s.v. Cananefaten, RGA 4, 329f. W. W…

Bonna

(241 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul | Legio | Limes | Limes | Batavian Revolt Modern Bonn. Since 30/20 BC settlement of the  Ubii with an indigenous name; between 16 and 12 BC, it was a mixed Roman garrison, replaced under Emperor Augustus with a legion from 1 BC; the legionary camp was rebuilt after its destruction in AD 70 ( legio I Minervia:  Domitianus -- 4th cent.), as was the canabae, both using half-timbering. The suburb of the camp, which itself had been rebuilt several times, flourished until it was destroyed (and rebuilt) …

Silva Bacenis

(62 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Large forested mountain range forming an intra-Germanic barrier between the Cherusci and the Suebi (Caes. Gall. 6,10,5). Etymologically related to German 'Buche' (= beech), and therefore probably the Harz Mountains (possibly as far as Rhön-Vogelsberg), which as late as the Early Middle Ages was called 'Buchonia'. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography G. Neumann u. a., s. v. Bacenis silva, RGA 1, 572 f.

Antunnacum

(175 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The modern Andernach; crossing-point of important long-distance routes (CIL XVII 2,675; Amm. Marc. 18,2,4) and the Rhine valley road from  Mogontiacum to  Colonia Agrippinensis; near the Roman cohort fort on the ‘Hügelchen’, already manned in the 1st cent. AD, it was a   vicus with harbour facilities for goods from the hinterland (e.g. millstones and industrial stone from the quarries around Mayen). In late antiquity, the vicus being endangered by flooding, an area of some 5.6 hectares was protected by a wall with round, projecting towers, still…

Helvecones

(64 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] Aside from the  Harii, Manimi, Halisiones and Nahanarvali, a powerful partial tribe of the Vandali-Lugii (Tac. Germ. 43,2); probably identical to the Elouaíōnes (Ἐλουαίωνες, Ptol. 2,11,9), although they do not have the addition Loûg[i]oi (Λοῦγ[ι]οι) and their location is pinpointed as between Rhoutíkleioi (Ῥουτίκλειοι) and Burgundiones (Βουργοῦντες). In this case they would be the most northerly Lugii. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)

Boiohaemum

(76 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] ‘Homeland of the Boii’, now Bohemia (sources: Str. 7,1,3; Vell. Pat. 2,109,5; Tac. Germ. 28,2). Although widely abandoned by the Celtic  Boii around 60 BC (Caes. Gall. 1,5,4; cf. Str. 7,1,5; Plin. HN 3,146 deserta Boiorum) and occupied by the  Marcomanni shortly before the end of that cent., the region retained their name. That it gave its name to the  Baiovarii is disputed but quite likely. Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography TIR M 33,27.

Albis

(145 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] The Elbe (never the Alb [3], despite [1]) has its source according to Tac. Germ. 41,2 [2. 242 f.] in the territory of the  Hermunduri, according to Ptol. 2,11,1 in the Sudeten, according to Cass. Dio 55,1,3 correctly in the ‘Vandal Mountains’ (Riesengebirge / Krkonoše). Known by the Romans since  Caesar, reached by  Drusus and  Tiberius in 9 and 5 BC, soon crossed by L.  Domitius Ahenobarbus, it was to have become the Germanic border of Rome -- a plan that failed. Therefore known to Tac. (Germ. 41,4) only by ‘hearsay’ ( nunc tantum auditur). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibli…

Cusus

(73 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] River, eastern or western border of the kingdom of Quadian Vannius founded in AD 19 inter Marum (March) et Cusum (Tac. Ann. 2,63,6), mostly identified with the Duria, i.e. with Hron (Gran), Ipel' (Eipel) or -- archaeologically the most probable -- Váh (Waag [1. 186104]). Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) Bibliography 1 H.-W. Böhme, Arch. Zeugnisse zur Gesch. der Markomannenkriege, in: JRGZ 22, 1975, 153-217. TIR M 33,35f. G. Neumann, s.v. C., RGA 5, 112f. Ipel';

Iuvavum

(426 words)

Author(s): Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia | Raeti, Raetia (modern Salzburg). In the territory of the Alauni the developing Roman site of I. (etymology disputed) on the left bank of the Salzach replaced the Celtic hill settlements on the Rainberg, the Festungsberg and the Kapuzinerberg in the later years of Augustus' reign (beginning 1st cent. AD). I. was built at the junction of the northern road along the crest of the Alps from Bregenz (Brigantium) and the long distance road from Aquileia leading over the Radstädter Tauernpass, and was raised to the status of mu…
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