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Themista

(100 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Θεμίστα; Themísta). One of the women philosophers of the Epicurean School; at the beginning of the 4th cent. BC the wife of Leonteus [2] (Diog. Laert. 10,5,25); they had a son called Epicurus (Diog. Laert. 10,26). Cicero praises T.'s 'wisdom' ( sapientia) and names her as the author of numerous writings ( tanta volumina, Cic. Pis. 63). Epicurus addressed a number of letters (Excerpt: Diog. Laert. 10,5 = fr. 125 Usener) and a work Neocles to T. (Νεοκλῆς πρὸς Θεμίστα; Diog. Laert. 10,28) to her. Nothing of her work survives. Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography M. Erler, i…

Anaxarchus

(169 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (᾿Ανάξαρχος, Anáxarchos) of Abdera. Democritean philosopher ( Democriteans, c. 380-320 BC). He accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaign to the East. After Alexander's death, A. was taken prisoner and then pounded to death in a mortar by Nicocreon, the tyrant of Salamis on Cyprus, with whom he had quarrelled. In the ancient records, A.'s attitude towards Alexander the Great wavers between adoration and irony. A. was the author of a treatise Περὶ βασιλείας ( Perì basileías), of which only two fragments are preserved (fr. 65-66). The assessments of h…

Pugillares

(227 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (or pugillaria, mostly: 'notebook'). Latin substantive, derived from pugillus, a diminutive of pugnus ('fist', 'closed hand'); the etymology emphasises that it is an object of such restricted size that it can be held there. In Latin texts pugillares. is a term for a small writing surface; sometimes it occurs as a synonym for libellus or codicillus ('small manuscript'). What is meant are mostly wax or wood tablets (such as those from Vindolanda in Britain, cf. [3]) or sheets of parchment ( pugillares membranei, Mart. 14,7) fastened together. Ancient authors wro…

Opisthographos

(199 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (ὀπισθογράφος, -ον/ opisthográphos, -on; Latin opisthographus, -a, -um), lit. 'written on the reverse', adj., sometimes also used as a noun; a technical term rarely attested in antiquity. Ancient authors paraphrased or used synonyms instead (ὄπισθεν/ ópisthen or κατόπισθεν/ katópisthen, ὀπίσω/ opísō, κατόπιν/ katópin). In antiquity, opisthographos denoted either a roll with a text which continued from the recto to the verso (Plin. Ep. 3,5,17; opisthographum Ulp. Dig. 37,11,4) or a roll with a text on the back of the papyrus (Lucian. Vitarum au…

Siron

(89 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Σίρων; Sírōn). Epicurean philosopher, 1st cent. BC, who lived and worked in Neapolis. Known only from sparse testimonies [1]. It is uncertain whether he wrote at all. S. was an acquaintance of Philodemus (fr. 1) and a friend of Cicero (fr. 2-5). His most famous student was doubtlessly the Roman poet Vergilius who in his youth had studied Epicurean philosophy with him and remained close to him throughout his life (fr. 6-13). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography 1 M. Gigante, I frammenti di Sirone, in: Paideia 45, 1990, 175-198.

Hermarchus

(496 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Ἕρμαρχος; Hérmarchos). Born in Mytilene on Lesbos, a contemporary of  Epicurus. In his youth he was trained in rhetoric and encountered Epicurus in Mytilene in about 310 BC. H. did not immediately turn to philosophy, but only followed his teacher Epicurus to Athens after he had founded a school (306 BC). From 290 to 270 BC he went to Lampsacus to visit the Epicurean school there. Before his death in 270 BC, Epicurus transferred the leadership of the Athenian school to H. despite h…

Kepos

(120 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] The philosopher Epicurus owned a house in the Attic deme of Melite (Diog. Laert. 10,17) and a garden (κῆπος; kêpos), the seat of his school (Cic. Fin. 5,1,3; Sen. Ep. 21,10; Plin. HN 19,50; Diog. Laert. 10,11). The localization of this garden is disputed. It was either outside the city between the Dipylon Gate and the Academy (Heliodorus, Aethiopica 1,16,5) [2], or in the city itself ( in ipsa urbe, Plin. HN 19,50), adjoining the house in the deme of Melite or very close by [1]. Epicurus; Epicurean School Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography 1 E. Wycherley, The Garden of E…

Herculanean papyri

(884 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. Definition Papyri with Latin and Greek texts found during the Bourbon excavations in the middle of the 18th cent. in a villa near  Herculaneum (with site map). These were part of the library of the poet and philosopher  Philodemus of Gadara, who had gone from Athens to Italia during the period 80-70 BC and maintained a friendly relationship there with L.  Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus, the owner of the villa in Herculaneum. In this luxurious villa, Philodemus collected an ext…

Scheda

(204 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] ( schida, scida) has various meanings in Latin authors: (1) a sheet or piece of papyrus or parchment (Pugillares) for notes or short messages (Cic. Att. 1,20,7; Quint. Inst. 1,8,19; Mart. 4,89,4; CGL IV 422,52; V 243,10 and 482,57;  cf. [1. 4920]). (2) In Late Antiquity s./ schedula is the term for a 'rough draft' of a literary work; cf. Isid. Etym. 6,14,8 “scheda est quod adhuc emendatur, et necdum in libris redactum est” ("scheda describes a text which still has to be corrected and is not yet finished"; the interpretation i…

Autograph

(557 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] The existence in antiquity of MSS of literary texts written ‘in the author's own handwriting’ is still a controversial subject in current times and is closely connected with the individual authors' ways of working ( Copy). The MSS under consideration are those which were claimed to be a copy in the author's own hand, as well as the evidence of indirect tradition which lead to the conclusion that a literary work was written in the author's own hand. The only texts which can be said with absolute certainty to have been written in the author's own hand are th…

Correction marks

(412 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] An ancient text could be corrected in at least two ways: a) a διορθωτής ( diorthōtḗs), a professional c orrector, collated the copy with the original. This intervention was sometimes indicated by the monogram δι = δι(ώρθωται), ‘corrected’ [1. 15. n. 85,13] ( Publication). b) A reader (not necessarily a professional corrector, but often a lay man) collated the copy with another sample. Two or more correctors could work on the same copy [3]. A wrong correction was indicated as ἀποδιόρθωμα ( apodiórthōma) (PSI 12, 1287,11-14). The intervention of an ancient correcto…

Epicurean School

(1,973 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. School of Epicurus The school, founded in Athens in 307/6 or 305/4, survived as an institution until the 1st cent. BC. After a period of obscurity we again come across references, from the 2nd cent. AD, to some Epicurean philosophers. It was between the 4th and 1st cents. BC that the Epicurean School received its strength and vitality, extending both its range of thought and its structure. That happened under a series of school heads from Epicurus to Patron who assured its fate and…

Publication

(667 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] Publication (ἔκδοσις/ ékdosis) describes the act by means of which an author in Antiquity released his work to the public. The common interpretation (van Groningen) limited the meaning of ἔκδοσις to entirely private transmission by authors themselves, who would make their works available to anybody who might wish to become acquainted with them. This view has been abandoned for good reasons [1. 60f.]. Some evidence in Porphyrius, Galen and Quintilian suggests rather interpreting the verb ἐκδοῦναι ( ekdoûnai) in the sense of 'making public, publishing'. The…

Herculanensische Papyri

(771 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[English version] A. Bestimmung Während der bourbonischen Ausgrabungen Mitte des 18. Jh. in einer Villa bei Herculaneum (mit Lageplan) gefundene Papyri mit lat. und griech. Texten. Diese waren Teil der dortigen Bibliothek des Dichters und Philosophen Philodemos von Gadara, der in den 80er-70er Jahren des 1. Jh. v.Chr. aus Athen nach Italien gekommen war und dort freundschaftliche Beziehungen zu L. Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus, dem Eigentümer der Villa von Herculaneum, pflegte. Philodemos versam…

Lesezeichen

(2,288 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
I. Griechisch [English version] A. Allgemein Die übliche Praxis der ant. griech. Kopisten, sowohl Prosa als auch Dichtung in scriptio continua zu schreiben, d.h. ohne die einzelnen Buchstaben als Wörter zu gruppieren und so Sinneinheiten abzugrenzen, muß zu erheblichen Lese- und Verständnisschwierigkeiten geführt haben. Als Abhilfe setzte man - sporadisch und ohne feste Regeln - L. ein. Auf einigen griech. Inschr. des 5./4. Jh.v.Chr. werden Wörter durch eine waagerechte Reihe von Punkten getrennt [4]. Punkte sind a…

Philodemos

(2,193 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Φιλόδημος). [English version] A. Leben und Werk Geboren in Gadara um 110 v.Chr.; in Athen Schüler des epikureischen Philosophen Zenon von Sidon; nach dessen Tod kam Ph. etwa in der Mitte der 70er Jahre nach Italien. In Rom befreundete er sich mit L. Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus (vgl. Cic. Pis. 68-72) und ließ sich in der Pisonenvilla (auch als “Villa dei Papiri” bekannt) in Herculaneum nieder, wo er mit Siron und den Dichtern Quinctilius Varus, L. Varius Rufus, Plotius und Vergilius zusammentraf. Ph. starb nach 40 v.Chr. Vor der Entdeckung der Bibliothek in der “Villa dei Pa…

Korrekturzeichen

(398 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[English version] Ein antiker Text konnte auf mindestens zweierlei Weise korrigiert werden: a) Ein διορθωτής ( diorthōtḗs), ein professioneller corrector, kollationierte die Abschrift mit der Vorlage. Dieser Eingriff wurde gelegentlich mit dem Monogramm δι = δι(ώρθωται), “korrigiert”, angezeigt [1. 15. Anm. 85,13] (Ausgabe). b) Ein Leser (nicht notwendig ein professioneller Korrektor, sondern oft eine Privatperson) kollationierte die Kopie mit einem anderen Exemplar. Zwei oder mehrere Korrektoren konnten an dersel…

Pugillares

(217 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[English version] (oder pugillaria, meist: “Notizbuch”). Lat. Subst., abgeleitet von pugillus, dem Deminutivum von pugnus (“Faust, geschlossene Hand”); die Etym. betont, daß es sich um einen Gegenstand von so geringen Ausmaßen handelt, daß er darin Platz findet. In lat. Texten ist der Begriff p. ein Schriftträger von geringer Größe; bisweilen erscheint er als Syn. für libellus oder codicillus (“kleine Hs.”). Dabei handelte es sich meist um aneinander befestigte Wachs- oder Holztäfelchen (wie diejenigen aus dem britannischen Vindolanda, vgl. [3]) oder Pergamentblätter ( p. mem…

Abschrift

(2,068 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[English version] A. Allgemeines A. ist in zweifachem Sinne zu verstehen, sowohl als A. eines lit. Werks von der ersten Fassung über die verschiedenen Entstehungsphasen bis zur Umgestaltung des Textes zu einem Buch, als auch die zur programmierten, “verlegerischen” Verbreitung bestimmte A. desselben. A. führt daher auf die Arbeitsweise der Autoren der Antike, wie auch auf den Bereich der Buchproduktion zurück. Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) [English version] B. Abschrift-Techniken Indirekte Zeugnisse über die Arbeitsweise der ant. Schriftsteller stehen nur begrenzt zu…

Opisthographos

(195 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[English version] (ὀπισθογράφος, -ον; lat. opisthographus, -a, -um), wörtl. “auf der Rückseite beschrieben”, Adj., bald auch als Subst. verwendet; ein für die Ant. kaum belegter t.t. Die ant. Autoren benutzten eher Umschreibungen und Synonyme (ὄπισθεν/κατόπισθεν, ὀπίσω, κατόπιν). In der Ant. bezeichnete o. entweder eine Rolle mit einem Text, der sich von der Recto- auf die Versoseite fortsetzt (Plin. epist. 3,5,17; opisthographum Ulp. Dig. 37,11,4), oder eine Rolle, die einen Text auf der hinteren Seite des Papyrus enthält (Lukian. vitarum auctio 9; Porp…
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