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Argo

(150 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[English version] (Ἀργώ). Argonauten-Schiff (Hom. Od. 12,70). Aus Fichten des Pelion (Eur. Med. 3 f.) vom Phrixossohn Argos unter Anleitung Athenes als Fünfzigruderer erbaut (Apollod. 1,110). Nach ihrem Erbauer (Apollod. l.c.; Pherekydes FGrH F 106) oder ihrer Schnelligkeit benannt (Diod. 4,41,3). Von einem Stück Holz der dodonäischen Eiche, das Athene in den Bug einsetzte (Apollod. l.c.; Apoll. Rhod. 1,526 f.), hatte die A. ihre Redefähigkeit (Pherekydes FGrH F 111a; Aischyl. fr. 20 TrGF 3). Nach…

Ananke

(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀνάγκη; Anánkē). The word attested in Homer as an abstract term (‘compulsion’) develops significance as a philosophical term from the pre-Socratics onwards [1. 5 ff.; 2. 147 ff.; 3. 103 ff.]: Thales (A 1, DK 71, 12 f.) preserves the oldest Greek speculation, ‘to bring to expression with ananke, i.e. natural necessity, the power which is active mechanically behind all phenomena and which compels the divine primal principle to appear in its multitudinous forms’ [1. 6]; ananke is frequently equated with εἱμαρμένη ( heimarménē) (e.g. Heraclid. A 5). The pe…

Phrontis

(175 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Φρόντις; Phróntis). [German version] [1] Son of Phrixus and Chalkiope, daughter of Aietes Son of Phrixus and Aeetes' daughter Chalciope [2], brother of Argos [I 2], Melas [2] and Cytissorus (Hes. Cat. 255; Apollod. 1,83). On Phrixus’ death the sons return to Hellas (Apollod. 1,120; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1141ff.) or remain in Colchis (Val. Fl. 5,460ff.). Only in Apoll. Rhod. 4,70ff. does Ph. play a role, when Medea calls to him as the youngest of Phrixus’ sons to help her escape and he responds. Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Helmsman of Menelaus Son of Onetor, helmsman of Menelau…

Tyro

(288 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τυρώ; Tyrṓ). The daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, famed for her very white skin (from tyrós, cheese) and her magnificent head of curls (cf. Hom. Od. 2,119 f.; Hes. Cat. 30,25; Pind. Pyth. 4,136, cf 109; Soph. fr. 648; Diod. Sic. 6 fr. 6,5; 7,2). After her parents were killed by Zeus, T. who had opposed her father's sacrilege, is taken to Thessalia to her uncle Cretheus and his wife Sidero. Here Poseidon, assuming the shape of the river god Enipeus, fathers her twins Neleus [1] and Pelias; At…

Minyades

(412 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μινυάδες, Latin also Minyeïades/singular Minyeïas or Minyeïdes/singular Minyeïs). The three daughters of Minyas, whose names were Leucippe (Leuconoë), Arsippe (Arsinoë [I 2]) and Alcathoë [1] (Alcithoë). Their myth, which is missing in Apollodorus, is found with variants in Ov. Met. 4,1ff., 389ff., Plut. Mor. 299e-300a (Qu. Gr. 38), Antoninus Liberalis 10 and Ael. VH 3,42. According to Antoninus Liberalis, who follows Nicander (Heteroioumena, B. 4) and Corinna (fr. 665 PMG), the Minyade…

Medea

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μήδεια/ Mḗdeia, Lat. Medea). Born in Aea/Colchis (M. Αἰαίη: Apoll. Rhod. 3,1136) as the daughter of Aeetes, who was the son of Helios and the brother of Circe, and the Oceanid Idyia (Hes. Theog. 956ff., 992ff., Apollod. 1,129) or Hecate (Diod. Sic. 4,45,3). Sister of Chalciope [2] and Apsyrtus [1] (Apollod. 1,83.132), betrothed to Styrus (Val. Fl. 5,257f.), wife of Jason [1] and by him the mother of Medeius (Hes. Theog. 1001) or Mermerus and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Subsequently s…

Symplegades

(158 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Συμπληγάδες sc. πέτραι; Symplēgádes, sc. pétrai: 'clashing sc. rocks'), also synormádes (Sim. fr. 546 PMG), sýndromoi (Pind. P. 4,208-211), Cyaneae [1] (Eur. Andr. 864 f.), syndromádes (Eur. Iph. T. 422) or Plēgádes (Apoll. Rhod. 2,596). Gateway of rocks in the myth of the Argonauts at the transition from the real world into the mythical one (return through the Planctae , with which they were often confused, e.g. Hdt. 4,85,1). The Argo is the first ship to successfully pass through, with Hera's (and Athena's) help, a…

Tiphys

(156 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τῖφυς/ Tîphys). Son of Hagnias, from Siphae, the port of Thespiae, Argonaut and helmsman of the Argo (Apollod. 1,111; Apoll. Rhod. 1,105-110 and 1,401 f.; Val. Fl. 1,481-483; Orph. A. 122-126). T. leads the launch (Apoll. Rhod. 1,381-393), urges departure ( ibid. 1,522 f.), steers safely out of harbour ( ibid. 1,559-562) and takes the ship unharmed into the Bosporus [1] ( ibid. 2,169-176) and through the Symplegades ( ibid. 2,573-606). After his death from illness among the Mariandyni, Ancaeus [2] (Apollod. 1,126; Apoll. Rhod. 2,854-898; Val. Fl…

Charybdis

(311 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Χάρυβδις; Chárybdis). Cliff with a dangerous whirlpool, which together with Scylla, situated opposite it, originally formed a rocky portal, that was part of the route of the Argonauts on their return journey between Sirens and Planctae (on which Thrinacia follows), and which the  Argo successfully passes (Apollod. 1,136; Apoll. Rhod. 4,922f.; cf. Ov. Met. 7,62ff.; Orph. A. 1253ff., where the Argo comes through the Pillars of Hercules and C. is already located in Sicily, whilst Scy…

Lemnian women, Hypsipyle

(433 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ὑψιπύλη, -λεια; Hypsipýlē, - leia). The myth that was originally perhaps autonomous [1. 235f.] and was then interwoven with the journey of the Argonautae and the Theban group of legends is as follows, according to Apollod. 1,114f. (cf. Apoll. Rhod. 1,609ff.; Ov. Pont. 6; Val. Fl. 2,82ff.; Stat. Theb. 5,28ff.; schol. Pind. Nem. hypothesis b): Because of the neglect of her cult, Aphrodite afflicts the Lemnian women (LW) with a bad odour [2; 3] so that the men of Lemnos live with capt…

Phineus

(595 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Φινεύς; Phineús). [German version] [1] Son of Phoenix and Cassiepeia Son of Agenor ’s[1] son Phoenix [1] and Cassiepeia [1] (Hes. Cat. 138; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 86; Antimachus fr. 70 Matthews); also son of Agenor himself (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 95; Apoll. Rhod. 2,237; Nonnus, Dion. 2,680) or Poseidon (Apollod. 1,120). Married first to Cleopatra [I 1], daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia, by whom he fathers two sons (Plexippus/Pandion; Parthenius/Carambis; Mariandynus/Thynus, and others); then to Idaea, the daug…

Hylas

(327 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ὕλας; Hýlas). Son of  Theiodamas (Apollod. 1,117; Apoll. Rhod. 1,1212f.) and Menodice (Hyg. Fab. 14,11); local hero of  Cius. In a quarrel over food (for his son: Callim. Fr. 24),  Heracles kills Theiodamas (Apollod. 2,153; Apoll. Rhod. 1,1212-1219, where Heracles seeks a pretext for war against the Dryopians). Furthermore, according to Apollod. 1,117; Apoll. Rhod. 1,1153-1283, Heracles takes H. with him as his lover on the journey of the  Argonauts. In Mysia, H. is kidnapped by nymphs while fetching water (transformed into an…

Sidero

(136 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Σιδηρώ; Sidērṓ), second wife of Salmoneus and, after his death, first wife of Cretheus , the ruler of Iolcus. She torments her stepdaughter Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus and his first wife Alcidice and Cretheus's niece, who grows up with them in Thessaly. Neleus [1] and Pelias, the exposed sons of Tyro and Poseidon, recognize and free their mother; Pelias kills S. on an altar to Hera; Cretheus marries Tyro (Apollod. 1,90-96). In Tragedy S. and Salmoneus in Elis together torment Tyro…

Helle

(164 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἕλλη; Héllē). Daughter of  Athamas and  Nephele, fled with her brother  Phrixus on a golden ram from her stepmother Ino and drowned in the sea, which from then on has been called  Hellespont (Pind. fr. 189; Aesch. Pers. 69f.) (Apollod. 180-182; Ov. Fast. 3,851-876; Hyg. Fab. 1-3; her tomb on the Chersonesus: Hdt. 7,58,2). Valerius Flaccus (5,476ff.; 2,611) associates H. and Phrixus more closely with the  Argonauts, by making Athamas the son of  Cretheus, rather than his brother, a…

Aeetes

(190 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Αἰήτης; Aiḗtēs). King of Aea/Colchis, son of Helios and Perse(is), brother of Circe, Pasiphae and Perses. Spouse of Idyia or Asterodeia (or Eurylytes: Naupact. fr. 6-7 EpGF), father of Chalciope (whom he married to Phrixus), of Medea, of Apsyrtus/Phaethon (as well as of Circe and Aegialeus in Diod. Sic. 4,45,3 and Dion. Scyt. fr. 20 Rusten): Hom. Od. 10,138 f.; Hes. Theog. 956 ff.; Apollod. 1,83, 129, 147; Apoll. Rhod. 3,240 ff. A. tries to kill Jason for the Golden Fleece, since his power depends on its possession (Val. Fl. 5,236 ff. = Diod. Sic.…

Argo

(176 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀργώ; Argṓ). Ship which carried the Argonauts (Hom. Od. 12,70). A ship with space for fifty oarsmen, constructed out of spruce wood from Pelion (Eur. Med. 3 f.) by Argus the son of Phrixus under the guidance of Athena (Apollod. 1,110). Named after her builder (Apollod. loc. cit.; Pherecydes FGrH F 106) or her speed (Diod. Sic. 4,41,3). The A. was granted the ability to speak (Pherecydes FGrH F 111a; Aeschyl. fr. 20 TrGF 3) by means of a piece of Dodonian oak that Athena set into t…

Phrixus

(334 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Φρίξος/ Phríxos, Lat. Phrixus). Son of Athamas and Nephele [1], brother of Helle. When Athamas, incited by his second wife Ino (Leucothea), intends to sacrifice P. to Zeus on the basis of an oracle falsified by her, he flees with Helle on a ram with a golden coat sent by Nephele. Helle drowns; P, after his arrival in Aea (Colchis), sacrifices the ram to Zeus Phyxios and gives the fleece to Aeetes who hangs it up in the grove of Ares (as a guarantee of his rule: Diod. Sic. 4,47,6; Va…

Idmon

(234 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Ἴδμων; Ídmōn). [German version] [1] Seer Son of  Asteria [2] (daughter of the Thessalian  Lapith Coronus) and of Apollo (Val. Fl. 1,228ff.), father of  Thestor, grandfather of  Calchas (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 108.). The Argive  Abas [1] is named as his human ‘father’ (Apoll. Rhod. 1,139ff.; Orph. A. 187ff.; Hyg. Fab. 14,11). As a seer with a telling name (‘the one who knows’), what is apparently the original version of the myth of  Argonauts he takes part in the expedition despite his foreknowledge tha…

Eurynome

(186 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Εὐρυνόμη; Eurynómē). Daughter of Oceanus; with Thetis she hid  Hephaestus for nine years after he had been expelled from Olympus by Hera (Hom. Il. 18,398ff.). In Hes. (Theog. 358), E. comes next to Metis in the catalogue of the  Oceanids (337; Apollod. 1,8 mother Tethys), next to Metis and Themis in the catalogue of the wives of Zeus as mother of the  Charites (907ff.; Apollod. 1,13), as which Call. (fr. 6 Pf.) calls her Τιτηνιάς ( Titēniás) (participant in the battle with the giants on the Pergamum Altar: inscr. from Pergamum 110). Like the Song of Orph…

Circe

(787 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κίρκη, Kírkē, Lat. Circe, Circa). Immortal (Hom. Od. 12,302) goddess, with the gift of language (ibid. 10,136) and a nymph (ibid. 10,543), daughter of Helios and of the  Oceanid Perse(is), sister of  Aeetes (ibid. 10,135ff.; Hes. Theog. 956f.; Apollod. 1,83), of  Perses (Apollod. 1,147) and  Pasiphae (Apollod. 3,7), by Odysseus, she is the mother of  Agrius and Latinus (Hes. Theog. 1011ff.) as well as  Cassiphone (Lycoph. 808 with schol.). According to Diodorus (4,45,3ff.), C. is …
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