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Tubu

(2,868 words)

Author(s): , G. Yver-[Ed.] | Zaborski, A.
, écrit en lettres arabes Tūbū, peuple du Sahara oriental. Il se trouve dispersé sur un immense territoire, entre, à l’est le désert Libyen, sur les franges de l’Égypte et de la Libye; à l’ouest, le massif du Hoggar/Ahaggar [ q.v.], en Algérie mériodionale; au nord, le Fezzan [voir Fazzān], région de Libye méridionale; et au sud, la moitié septentrionale du Tchad [voir Čad, dans Suppl.] et les franges du Soudan. Au Fezzan, ils forment la majeure part de la population dans le district de Gatrūn, et un petit nombre d’entre eux se trouvent dans l’oasis de Kufra [ q.v.]. Le plateau de Djado [voir Ḏj̲ād…

al-Haddād

(557 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, al-Ṭāhir, écrivain tunisien nainaliste et réformiste, qui est considéré comme le ¶ pionnier du mouvement de libération de la femme dans son pays. Né à Tunis vers 1899, dans une modeste famille originaire de la Ḥāma de Gabès, il fit ses études à la Zaytūna [ q.v.] de 1911 à 1920 et obtint le taṭwīʿ (correspondant au diplôme de fin d’études secondaires). Il participa ensuite à l’activité syndicale et fut chargé de la propagande dans une organisation fondée en 1924, la Ḏj̲āmiʿat ʿumūm al-ʿamala al-tūnisiyya, dont les principaux promoteurs furent poursuivis et bannis en 1925. Ses …

Abū l-Ḥasan al-Mag̲h̲ribī

(215 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad, poète et lettré du IVe/Xe siècle dont l’origine est inconnue. Il semble s’être beaucoup déplacé puisqu’on le trouve au service de Sayf al-dawla, d’al-Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād et du maître du Ḵh̲urāsān, qu’il rencontra Abū l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī et séjourna aussi en Égypte, au Ḏj̲abal, en Transoxiane, au S̲h̲ās̲h̲. Les poèmes que l’on possède de ce grand voyageur sont des pièces de circonstance ¶ sans grande originalité, mais il serait l’auteur de plusieurs épîtres et livres, notamment d’une Tuḥfat al-kuttāb fī l-rasāʾil et d’une Tad̲h̲kirat/Mud̲h̲ākarat al-…

Takfīr

(809 words)

Author(s): Ed, | Hunwick, J.O.
(a.), nom verbal de la deuxième forme du verbe kaffara «déclarer quelqu’un kāfir ou incroyant». Depuis les débuts de l’époque islamique, ce fut une accusation lancée violemment aux opposants par des sectaires et des zélotes, tels les Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites [ q.v.]. Pourtant, un théologien comme al-G̲h̲azālī [ q.v.] affirmait que, puisque l’adoption du kufr était équivalente à l’apostasie, encourant la peine de mort [voir Murtad], on ne pouvait porter cette accusation à la légère ( Fayṣal al-tafriḳa bayn al-Islām wa l-zandaḳa, cité dans B. Lewis, The political language of Islam, Chicago-Lon…

Dor

(328 words)

Author(s): Noort, Ed
[German Version] The ancient port of Dor ( Dw/'r; Dū'ru; Δῶρος/ Dṓros; Δῶρα/ Dṓra) is identical with Ḥel-Burğ (1425/2247). Dor is attested from Ramses II on and is mentioned as the dwelling place of the Tkr, a group of sea-peoples, in the travel report of Wenamun (1075). From Solomon on, it was claimed to be within Israelite territory (1 Kgs 4:11). The book of Joshua has another opinion (Josh 11:2, etc.). A seal (8th cent.) mentions a …

Philistines

(1,866 words)

Author(s): Niemann, Hermann Michael | Noort, Ed
[German Version] I. Old Testament Philistines (Heb. פְּלִשְׁתִים/ pelištîm; LXX ϕυλιστιείμ/ phylistieím [12 occurrences] and ἀλλόϕυλος/ allóphylos [269 occurrences]; Egyp. pl/rst) are represented in the Bible as living in the “Land of the Philistines” (Gen 21:32; Exod 13:17; 1 Sam 30:16 etc.); for Jewish narrators most specifically the area extending from Ashdod through Gath and Ekron to the boundary of Judea itself (1 Sam 5:1–12; 6:1). Their leaders are a group of five cooperating “princes” (Josh 13:3; Judg 3:3; …

Vriezen, Theodore Christiaan

(316 words)

Author(s): Noort, Ed
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1899, Dinxperlo – Jan 29, 1981, Amersfoort), professor of Old Testament and Semitic languages at Groningen from 1941 to 1956 and at Utrecht for 1956 to 1969 (1965–1966 in Beirut). For decades Vriezen was the preeminent Old Testament scholar of the Netherlands; he received an honorary doctorate from Bern in 1964. As a pastor, along with O. Eißfeldt, Aage Betzen, W. Eichrodt, and others he took part in the 1924 training course of the Deutsches Evangelisches Institut für Alt…

Nafza

(369 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( Nefza ), the name of a Berber tribe (ethnic: Nafzī) belonging to the group which the mediaeval genealogists and historians mention under the name of Butr [ q.v.]. It had spread out over a large part of Barbary, between Ifrīḳiya [ q.v.] and Fās, passing through the region of Constantine, Oran, Tlemcen and the Rīf. In contemporary Tunisia, to the east of the massif of Kroumirie [see k̲h̲umayr ], there extends the country of the Nafzas, a fertile region fringed with woodlands abounding in game. Near the D̲j̲abal al-Abyaḍ, at ca 150 km/96 miles to the west of Tunis by road and 140 km/90…

Abu ’l-Asad al-Ḥimmānī

(385 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nubāta b. ʿabd allāh , minor poet of the ʿAbbāsid period, originally from Dīnawar. His talent was only moderate, and it was ʿAllawayh/ʿAllūya who rescued him from oblivion, since this singer, the poet’s friend, introduced him to the great men of the age and, above all, set some of his verses to music, so that they enjoyed a great success. His career seems to have been quite a lengthy one. He is found, first of all, satirising as early as 153/770 two of al-Manṣūr’s mawālī , Ṣāʿid and Maṭar (al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī, Wuzarāʾ , 124), and then frequenting Abū Dulaf al-ʿId̲j̲lī [see al-ḳāsim b. ʿīsā …

Mūsā b. ʿUḳba

(168 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-Asadī (after 55-141/675-758), early Medinan scholar and historian, especially interested in the Prophet’s expeditions or mag̲h̲āzī [ q.v.]. A mawlā of al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām’s and a pupil of al-Zuhrī [ q.vv.], he taught in the Prophet’s mosque in Medina, showing in his work the characteristic, increasing emphasis of the Medinan school on isnāds and also displaying a concern in giving dates for the events which he describes. His Kitāb al-Mag̲h̲āzī , transmitted by his nephew Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿUḳba, has not survived as a complete work, …

al-Niẓāmiyya, al-Madrasa

(38 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the designation given to the colleges of Sunnī instruction founded in ʿIrāḳ, al-D̲j̲azīra and Persia by the great Sald̲j̲ūḳ vizier Niẓām al-Mulk [ q-v.]. See for these, madrasa, I. 4, and niẓām al-mulk . (Ed.)

Manōhar

(69 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Manōhargárh , a fortress on a lofty rock, some 2,500 feet/770 m. high, in lat. 16° N. and long. 74° 1′ E., in the Western Ghats range of peninsular India. Formerly in the southernmost part of the British Indian province of Bombay, it is now just within the southwestern corner of the Maharashtra state of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography Imperial gazetteer of India 2, xvii, 200.

ʿArabistān

(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ‘the Arab country’, a term much in use until recently to denote the Persian province of Ḵh̲ūzistān; the latter name was revived during the reign of Riḍā S̲h̲āh Pahlawī. Fur further particulars see k̲h̲ūzistān . Following Persian usage, ʿArabistān denotes occasionally the Arabian peninsula. In Ottoman administrative documents from the 16th century it is occasionally applied to the Arabic-speaking provinces of the Empire, more especially to Syria. (Ed.)

Red̲j̲āʾī-Zāde

(208 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Meḥmed Ḏj̲elāl bey (1254-1300/1838-82), Turkish writer and poet, and elder brother of Red̲j̲āʾī-zāde Maḥmūd Ekrem Bey [see ekrem bey ]. He had a moderately successful administrative career, entering the Translation Office ( Terd̲j̲üme Odasi̊ ) of the Sublime Porte in 1270/1853-4, being appointed in 1279/1862-3 chief clerk to the embassy in St. Petersburg, becoming assistant secretary ( mektūbī muʿāwini ) under Aḥmed D̲j̲ewdet Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in 1282-1865-6, when the latter became wālī of Aleppo, and finally chief secretary of the provinces of K…

D̲j̲amdār

(187 words)

Author(s): Ed. | D. Ayalon
The word d̲j̲amdār is a contraction of Pers. d̲j̲āma-dār , “clothes-keeper”, cf. Dozy, Suppl . This word is not, as stated by Sobernheim in EI 1, a “title of one of the higher ranks in the army in Hindustān …”, although d̲j̲amʿdār , popularly d̲j̲amādār , Anglo-Indian Jemadar, “leader of a number ( d̲j̲amʿ ) of men”, is applied in the Indian Army to the lowest commissioned rank, platoon commander, but may be applied also to junior officials in the police, customs, etc., or to the foreman of a group of guides, sweepers, etc. (Ed.) In Mamlūk Egypt the d̲j̲amdāriyya (sing. d̲j̲amdār), “keepers of …

Ḳanbāniya

(302 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also kanbāniya , with kanfāniya once attested in the Calendrier de Cordoue ), from Spanish campaña , in general denotes in Spanish Arabic usage, the countryside, but in particular the Campiña, sc. the vast, gently-undulating plain which forms the southern part of the kūra of Cordova; al-Idrīsī, Description de lAfrique et de lEspagne , ed. and tr. Dozy-De Goeje, 174, 209, makes it an iḳlim whose capital was Cordova and its main towns al-Zahrāʾ, Ecija, Baena, Cabra and Lucena. After leaving the capital, the approach to it was first thr…

Māʾ

(34,897 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Young, M.J.L. | Hill, D.R. | Rabie, Hassanein | Cahen, Cl. | Et al.
(a.) “water”. The present article covers the religio-magical and the Islamic legal aspects of water, together with irrigation techniques, as follows: 1. Hydromancy A a vehicle for the sacred, water has been employed for various techniques of divination, and in particular, for potamonancy (sc. divination by means of the colour of the waters of a river and their ebbing and flowing; cf. FY. Cumont, Études syriennes , Paris 1917, 250 ff., notably on the purification power of the Euphrates, consulted for divinatory reasons); for pegomancy (sc…

Ḳaṣab

(429 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), noun of unity ḳaṣaba , any plant with a long and hollow stem like the reed ( Arundo donax ), to which the term is especially applied (see Muk̲h̲aṣṣaṣ , xi, 46). The bamboo is called k̲h̲ayzurān , but ḳaṣab is a component of certain expressions denoting in particular the sugar cane ( ḳaṣab al-sukkar, etc.) [see following article] and the sweet flag (or fragrant rush, ḳaṣab al-d̲h̲arīra ; see H. P. J. Renaud and G. S. Colin, Tuḥfat al-aḥbāb , Paris 1934, 152; M. Levey, The medical formulary . . . of al-Kindī , Madison-London 1966, 316), or even the papyrus reed ( ḳaṣab al-bardī or just al-bardī

Niẓām al-Mulk

(145 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Čīn Ḳilič K̲h̲ān , Ḳamar al-dīn , founder of the Indian Muslim state of Ḥaydarābād in the early 12th/18th century and a dominant figure in the military affairs of the decaying Mug̲h̲al empire from his appointment as governor of the Deccan by the Emperor Farruk̲h̲-siyar [ q.v.] till his death in 1161/1748. In the early years of his governorship he was the deadly foe of his rivals for influence in the empire, the Bārha Sayyids [ q.v. in Suppl.], and after his victory over them at S̲h̲akarkheldā in 1137/1724, virtually independent ruler in Ḥaydarābād with the additional ti…

Sindān

(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sandān , a port on the western coast of peninsular India, mentioned by the early Islamic geographers (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, Ibn Ḥawḳal, the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam ) as a flourishing mercantile town with a mixed population of Hindus and Muslims. It has been identified with the Sanjam of Portuguese maps and the St. John of English ones and as lying south of Daman and north of Thāna, hence in the modern Bombay state of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, tr. Minorsky, 57, comm. 244-5 S. Maqbul Ahmad, India and the neighbouring territories in the Kitāb Nuzḥat al-Mus̲h̲tāq ... of al-S̲…
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